AFI Catalog of Feature Films
Detailed View of Movie
Name Occurs Before Title Offscreen Credit Print Viewed By AFI
Title: Birdman

Production Company: Regency Enterprises  
  New Regency  
  M Productions  
  Le Grisbi Productions  
Production Text:
Fox Searchlight Pictures and Regency Enterprises Present
A New Regency/M Productions/ Le Grisbi Production
An Alejandro G. Iñárritu Film
Made in Association with TSG Entertainment
Financed in Association with Worldview Entertainment
Distribution Company: Fox Searchlight Pictures  

Copyright Claimant Copyright Date Copyright Number
Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation 17 Oct 2014 PA1918497
TSG Entertainment Finance LLC 17 Oct 2014 PA1918497
Regency Entertainment (USA), Inc. 17 Oct 2014 PA1918497


Release Date: 17 Oct 2014
Premiere Information: Venice Film Festival screening: 27 Aug 2014; Telluride Film Festival screening: 30 Aug 2014; Los Angeles and New York openings: 17 Oct 2014
Production Date: spring 2013
Duration (in mins): 119
PCA NO: 48807
MPAA Rating: R
Country: United States
Language: English

Physical Properties: Sd: Dolby® Digital in selected theatres; Datasat Digital Sound in Selected Theatres
  col:
  Prints: Prints by Fotokem

Producer: Alejandro G. Iñárritu (Prod)
  John Lesher (Prod)
  Arnon Milchan (Prod)
  James W. Skotchdopole (Prod)
  Nicolás Giacobone (Assoc prod)
  Alexander Dinelaris, Jr. (Assoc prod)
  Armando Bo (Assoc prod)
  Christina Won (Assoc prod)
  Drew Houpt (Assoc prod)
  Christopher Woodrow (Exec prod)
  Molly Conners (Exec prod)
  Sarah E. Johnson (Exec prod)
Director: Alejandro G. Iñárritu (Dir)
  James W. Skotchdopole (Unit prod mgr)
  Robert Graf (Unit prod mgr)
  Gabrielle Mahon (Asst UPM)
  Peter Kohn (1st asst dir)
  Amy Lauritsen (2d asst dir)
  Catherine Feeny (2d 2d asst dir)
  Erica Kay (Unit prod mgr, Addl New York photog)
  Adam Somner (Asst dir, Addl New York photog)
  Jim Kontos (Prod mgr, Montreal Unit)
  Adam Somner (Asst dir, Montreal Unit)
Writer: Alejandro G. Iñárritu (Wrt)
  Nicolás Giacobone (Wrt)
  Alexander Dinelaris, Jr (Wrt)
  Armando Bo (Wrt)
Photography: Emmanuel Lubezki (Dir of photog)
  Chris Haarhoff (Steadicam op)
  Gregor Tavenner (1st asst cam)
  Rebecca Venezia (2d asst cam)
  Abby Levine (Dit tech)
  Jon Sandin (Loader)
  Alison Rosa (Still photog)
  Atsuchi Nishijima (Still photog)
  David Deever (Key video asst)
  Adam Meadows (2d video asst)
  Jonathan Munoz (2d video asst)
  Robert Sciretta (Gaffer)
  Peter Colavito (Best boy elec)
  Luis Contreras (Elec)
  Sean Sciretta (Elec)
  George Selden (Elec)
  Matthew Rohn (Genny op)
  Thomas O`Connor (Rigging gaffer)
  Robert Liccio, Jr (Rigging best boy elec)
  Ray Flynn (Rigging elec)
  Brian Raby (Rigging elec)
  Craig Ligget (Rigging elec)
  Rob Mabin (Rigging elec)
  James P. Dolan (Rigging elec)
  Mike Brennan (Rigging elec)
  Jon Luton (Dimmer board op)
  Kelly J. Britt (Dimmer tech)
  Chris Herman (Catalyst programmer)
  Peter Kaczorowski (Theatrical lighting des)
  Neil Mazzella (Theatrical lighting consultant)
  Nicholas Flynn (Asst to Mr. Kaczorowski)
  Mitch Lillian (Key grip)
  Paul Candrilli (Best boy grip)
  James Heerdegen (Dolly grip)
  Tristan R. Allen (Company grip)
  Ron Morales (Company grip)
  Kai Wai Cheng (Company grip)
  Vinnie Pierce (Company grip)
  Andrew Cheung (Company grip)
  James Boniece (Key rigging grip)
  Nick Vacarro (Best boy rigging grip)
  B. Cooper Boniece (Rigging grip)
  Michael McFadden (Rigging grip)
  Joe Fleming (Rigging grip)
  Jay Hendrickx (Cam scenic)
  Chapman/Leonard Studio Equipment, Inc. (Cam cranes, dollies, hydrascope telescoping crane arm, remote & stabilized cam systems provided by)
  Rodrigo Prieto (Dir of photog, Addl New York photog)
  John Conner (Asst cam, Los Angeles Unit)
  Alexa (Captured by)
Art Direction: Kevin Thompson (Prod des)
  Stephen H. Carter (Art dir)
  Chris Shriver (Asst art dir)
  David Meyer (Asst art dir)
  G.A. Howard (Art dept coord)
  Eric Helmin (Graphic des)
  Dan Sweetman (Action seq storyboard artist)
Film Editor: Douglas Crise (Ed)
  Stephen Mirrione (Ed)
  Rick Grayson (Addl ed)
  Corey Bayes (1st asst ed)
  Ken Terry (Asst ed)
  Erich Randolph (Asst ed)
  Emily Freund (Editorial prod asst)
  Jeremy R. Keller (Editorial prod asst)
  Steadfast Films (Image Stabilization services by)
  Tyler Nelson (Image Stabilization artist)
  Chad Peter (Image Stabilization artist)
  Anton Capaldo-Smith (Image Stabilization artist)
  Kodak Motion Picture Film (Film negative by )
Set Decoration: George DeTitta, Jr. (Set dec)
  Dan DeTitta (Asst set dec)
  Gerald A. DeTitta (Leadman)
  Martin Lasowitz (Prop master)
  Joel Custer (Asst prop master)
  Travis Quegan (Asst prop master)
  Alex Gorodetsky (Scenic charge)
  Quang Nguyen (Scenic foreman)
  Maria Gorodetsky (Scenics)
  Maria C. Suter (Scenics)
  Charles R. Suter (Scenics)
  Douglas Anderson (Scenics)
  Jordan Lovelace (Scenics)
  Anne Marie Ryan (Scenics)
  Jordan Spilman (Scenics)
  Stavros Stamat (Lead shopman)
  Zach Gonchor (Shopman)
  Kevin Brink (Set dressing foreman)
  Jolie Ruhe (Set dressing shop mgr)
  Timothy Joliat (Set dresser)
  Adam Goodnoff-Cernese (On-set dresser)
  Judy Gurr (Set dec buyer)
  Joseph A. Alfieri, Jr. (Const coord)
  Michael Acevedo, Jr (Key carpenter)
  Steven Fratianni (Key const grip)
  Shawn Mulligan, Jr (Best boy const grip)
  Geoffrey D. Pound (Const grip)
  Chris Marzulli (Const grip)
  James Cappello (Shop craft foreman)
  Mark Tierney (Shop craftsman)
  Yosef Barbalat (Shop craftsman)
  Roberto Jimenez (Shop elec)
  Ray Flynn (Addl shop elec)
Costumes: Albert Wolsky (Cost des)
  Sue Gandy (Asst cost des)
  Marcia Patten (Cost supv)
  Arianna Gallo (Costume coord)
  Monica Ruiz Ziegler (Set costumer)
  Winsome G. McKoy (Set costumer)
  Rosi Zingales (Tailor)
Music: Antonio Sanchez (Drum score by)
  Marching Cobras of New York (Time Square Band)
  Terrel Stowers (Band leader)
  Brian Blade (Addl drums by)
  Lynn Fainchtein (Mus supv)
  Martin Hernandez (Mus ed)
  Terry Wilson (Mus ed)
  Will Kaplan (Mus ed)
  Christine Bergren (Mus legal)
  Igloo Music (Score rec studio )
  Gustavo Borner (Scoring mixer)
  Audrey DeRoche (Score coord)
  Serge Courtois (Score rec studio asst)
  Daniel Davila (Score rec studio asst)
  Andres Locsey (Score rec studio asst)
Sound: Thomas Varga (Prod sd mixer)
  Brendan O`Brien (Boom op)
  Adam J. Sanchez (Sd utility)
  Martín Hernández { } (Sd des and supv)
  Aaron Glascock (Sd des and supv)
  Paul Aulicino (Asst supv sd ed)
  Deron Street (1st asst sd ed)
  Michelle Pazer (Supv dial/ADR ed)
  Thierry Couturier (Supv dial/ADR ed)
  Michele Perrone (Dial/ADR ed)
  Glynna Grimala (Dial ed)
  Albert Gasser (Dial ed)
  Jon Taylor (Re-rec mixer)
  Frank A. Montaño (Re-rec mixer)
  Skip Lievsay (Addl re-rec mixer)
  Tom Ozanich (Addl re-rec mixer)
  Jeremy Peirson (Addl sd des)
  Peter A. Brown (Addl sd ed)
  Roland Thai (Sd eff ed)
  Gary Hecker (Supv foley artist)
  Goeun Lee (Foley ed)
  Joe Dzuban (Foley ed)
  Jeremy Wilhoit (Foley artist)
  Catherine Harper (Foley artist)
  Gary Marullo (Foley artist)
  John Sanacori (Foley mixer)
  Nerses Gezelyan (Foley mixer)
  Universal Studios Sound (Re-rec sd services provided by)
  Bill Meadows (Re-rec mix tech)
  Dave Bergstrom (Stage eng)
  Warner Bros. Sound (Sd services provided by)
  Bradford Bell (Rec/Mix tech )
  Mark Purcell (Rec/Mix tech )
  Sean Madsen (Rec)
  Todd-Soundelux (Sd editorial services provided by)
  Sony Pictures Studios (ADR stages)
  Soundtrack NY (ADR stages)
  Warner Bros. (ADR stages)
  Brian Smith (ADR stages)
  Scott Cannizzaro (ADR stages)
  Jason Oliver (ADR stages)
  Beauxregard Neylon (ADR stages)
Special Effects: Johann Kunz (Spec eff coord)
  Conrad Brink (Spec eff coord)
  Lewis Gluck (Spec eff foreman)
  Mike Elizalde's Spectral Motion, Inc. (Birman suit created by )
  Mike Elizalde (Specialty costume supv, Spectral Motion, Inc.)
  Mary Elizalde (VP/CFO Spectral Motion, Inc.)
  Brian Walsh (Project mgr, Spectral Motion, Inc.)
  Alex Palma (Concept illustrator, Spectral Motion, Inc.)
  Norman Cabrera (Suit const art dept, Spectral Motion, Inc.)
  Claire Flewin (Suit const art dept, Spectral Motion, Inc.)
  Frederick Fraleigh (Suit const art dept, Spectral Motion, Inc.)
  Jeff Himmel (Suit const art dept, Spectral Motion, Inc.)
  Cass McClure (Suit const art dept, Spectral Motion, Inc.)
  Junko Komori (Suit const art dept, Spectral Motion, Inc.)
  Darin Bouyssou (Suit const art dept, Spectral Motion, Inc.)
  Brian Rae (Suit const art dept, Spectral Motion, Inc.)
  Kevin McTurk (Suit const art dept, Spectral Motion, Inc.)
  Neil Winn (Suit const art dept, Spectral Motion, Inc.)
  Maria Kruse (Prod admin, Spectral Motion, Inc.)
  James Patterson (Prod admin, Spectral Motion, Inc.)
  Ivy Agregan (Visual eff prod)
  Brad Tobler (Visual eff ed/Compositor)
  Ashley Bettini (Visual eff mgr)
  Jill Miller (Visual eff prod asst)
  Rodeo FX (Visual eff by)
  Sebastien Moreau (Exec prod, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Jordan Soles ( Exec prod, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Isabelle Langlois (Visual eff prod, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Ara Khanikian (Visual eff supv, Visual eff by Road FX)
  David Crawford (Prod mgr, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Adam O`Brien-Locke (Prod mgr, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Francois Croteau ( Matte painter, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Mathieu Veillette (Matte painter, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Sebastien Francoeur (3d supv, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Eloi Brunelle (Compositing supv, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Robert Bock (VFX dir of photog, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Vincent Bergeron ( Prod asst, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  William Cote (Prod asst, Visual eff by Rodeo FXVisual eff by Rodeo FX )
  Amelie Thomas (Prod asst, Visual eff by Rodeo FXVisual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Alexandre Menard (Layout artist, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Fabrice Vienne (Layout artist, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Alexis Belanger (Compositor, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Alice Pepujol (Compositor, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Andreanne Dodier-Villeneuve (Compositor, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Christian Morin (Compositor, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Emile Harvey (Compositor, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Felix Vallieres (Compositor, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  George Wharton (Compositor, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Jean-Francois Gagne (Compositor, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Jean-Michel St. Pierre Lapierre (Compositor, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Julien Klein (Compositor, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Laurent Spillemaecker (Compositor, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Martin Larrivee (Compositor, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Patrick David (Compositor, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Sebasten Veilleux (Compositor, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Thomas Montminy-Brodeur (Compositor, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Vincent Dudouet (Compositor, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Samuel Jacques (Lighting, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Francis Clement (VFX ed, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Matthew Rouleau (Shading, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Mikael Damant-Sirois (Shading, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Martine Guay (Matte painting TDs, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Zhi Wan (Matte painting TDs, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Christine Leclerc (Texture artist, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Irene Smirnova (Texture artist, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Valerie Nicol (Prod support, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Jennifer Elena (Prod support, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Roxanne Geoffroy (Prod support, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Marie-Philippe Boudreau (Prod support, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Christopher Chabot-Blanchet (Prod support, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Carl Gagnon (Modelling, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Guillaume Champagne (Modelling, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Patrice Poissant (Modelling, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Jocelyn Hudon (Anim, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Raphael Letertre (Anim, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Soal Givord (Anim, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Jonathan Laborde (FX artist, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Fernando Borges (FX artist, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Eric Larivee (Roto artist, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Marianne Roberge (Roto artist, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Steven Riccio (Roto artist, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Simon Mercier (Roto artist, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Jean-Philippe Voyer (Roto artist, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Jean-Philippe Dagenais (Roto artist, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Etienne Poulin-St. Laurent (Camera match move, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Loic Beguel (Camera match move, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Daniel Lowenberg (Camera match move, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  David McKay (Camera match move, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Jean-Sebastien Jasenovic (Technology, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Kar Hung Tom (Camera match move, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Robert Mason (Technology, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Vincent Blanco (Technology, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Marie-Pierre Boucher (Prod coord, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Marina Popova (Prod coord, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Carine Touraille (Pipeline TDs, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Julien Dubuisson (Pipeline TDs, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Alan Fregtman (Pipeline TDs, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  Olivier Martin (Concept artist, Visual eff by Rodeo FX)
  BLT Communications, LLC (Main titles des)
  Scarlet Letters (End titles)
  Louis Craig (Spec eff, Montreal Unit)
Make Up: Judy Chin (Makeup dept head)
  Rondi Scott (Key makeup artist)
  Jerry Popolis (Hair dept head)
  Kat Drazen (Key hair stylist)
Production Misc: Francine Maisler (Casting)
  Eva Z. Cabrera (Scr supv)
  Eric Bergman (Post prod supv)
  Michael Tinger (Post prod supv)
  Gus Gustafson (Prod coord)
  Morgan Newell (Asst prod office coord)
  Rich Moody (Prod secy)
  Adam Dubov (Prod asst)
  Amber Yoder (Prod asst)
  Nicholas Ramirez (Prod asst)
  Dixon McPhillips (Prod asst)
  Alyssa Frankel (Prod asst)
  Jakub Porembski (Prod asst)
  Pete Donohue (Prod asst)
  Ioannis Sochorakis (Prod asst)
  Mike Conners (Prod asst)
  Sara Kelley (Prod asst)
  Robert Beischer (Prod asst)
  Emmet Jack Lundberg (Prod asst)
  Flavia Casa (Prod asst)
  Karen Bender (Prod asst)
  Rebecca Harris (Prod asst)
  Jack Cronin (Prod asst)
  Jannette Anton (Prod asst)
  Gloria Kim (Prod asst)
  Stan Leung (Prod asst)
  Nick Ramirez (Prod asst)
  Jane Bulmer (Asst to Mr. Milchan)
  Grant Derkac (Asst to Mr. Lesher)
  Mary Jasionowski (Prod accountant)
  Jamie Horowitz (1st asst accountant)
  Abby Coon (Key 2d asst accountant)
  Tanisha Jones (2d asst accountant)
  Maria A. Marini (Payroll accountant)
  Araceli Leal (Accounting clerk)
  Mark Houston (Post prod accountant)
  Joaquin Prange (Loc mgr)
  Alex Borys (Asst loc mgr)
  Tom Scutro (Asst loc mgr)
  Ali McDonough (Loc coord)
  Josh Samataro (Loc asst)
  Kathy Driscoll-Mohler (Casting assoc)
  Stephanie Yankwitt (Casting assoc)
  Debbie DeLisi (Extras casting)
  Adam DeLisi (Extras casting)
  Canada Film Capital (Tax incentive consulting services provided by)
  Lockhem Productions, Inc. (Prod services provided by)
  Kevin Flynn (Transportation capt)
  Peter Kreinbihl (Transportation co-capt)
  Featured Cuisine (Catering by)
  Bradley Combs (Chef)
  Benjamin Kaiser (Chef asst)
  Joel Medina (Chef asst)
  J & P Craft, LLC (Craft service by)
  Jason Acevedo (Chef)
  Joe Decongilio (Chef)
  Greg Thompson (Chef)
  Maggie Dubris (Set medic)
  Jon Franklin (Set medic)
  Stone Management (Product placement by)
  Cat Stone (Prod placement coord)
  Adam Stone (Prod placement coord)
  Emma Cooper (Unit pub)
  Rafael Moses (Data wrangler )
  Lee Tucker (Preview eng)
  Vici Post Solutions (Digital content management by)
  Heidi Vogel (Account exec, DI)
  Danny Matthews (Transportation coord, Montreal Unit)
  Alex G. Scott (Prod supv, Los Angeles Unit)
Stand In: Stephen Pope (Stunt coord)
  Trampas Thompson (Rigging stunt double)
  Benjamin Kanes (Birdman double)
  Dave Neal (New York stand-in)
  Kyle Knauf (New York stand-in)
  Kelly Southerland (New York stand-in)
  Catherine O'Neal (New York stand-in)
  Caroline O'Meara (New York stand-in)
  Marie Pierre (New York stand-in)
  Victoria Paguia (Stunts)
  Kim Rideout (Stunts)
  Chris Place (Stunts)
  Tim Gallin (Stunts)
  Mick O'Rourke (Stunts)
  Stuart Schnitzer (Stunts)
  Scott Burik (Stunts)
  J. C. Robaina (Stunts)
  Balint Pinczehelyi (Stunts)
  Drew Leary (Stunts)
  Heidi Schnappauf (Stunts)
  George Collucci (Stunts)
  Paul Lacovara (Stunts)
  Tom Lamarche (Stunts)
  Blaise Corrigan (Stunts)
  Ricardo Sala (Stunts)
  Nicole Callender (Stunts)
  Stacy Courtney (Stunts)
  Natalie Meyer (Stunts)
  Jeremy Sample (Stunts)
  Josh Lakatos (Stunts)
  Tim Place (Stunts)
  Jason Silvis (Stunts)
  Peter Epstein (Stunts)
  Declan Mulvey (Stunts)
  Caroline Vexler (Stunts)
  Aja Frary (Stunts)
  Shawnna Thibodeau (Stunts)
Color Personnel: Technicolor (Digital Intermediate facility)
  Mike Dillon (Digital Intermediate project mgr)
  Steven J. Scott (Supv digital colorist)
  Charles Bunnag (Digital colorist)
  Juan Flores (Asst digital colorist)
  Brandie Konopasek (Asst Digital Intermediate project mgr)
  Bob Schneider (Digital Intermediate ed)

Music Text:
Song Text: “Birdman Blind Melody,” composed by Joan Valent; “BeBirdman,” composed by Joan Valent; “Harpad,” composed by Victor Stumpfhauser; “BB Drum Beats,” composed by Brian Blade; “Pavane Pour Une Infante Défunte,” written by Maurice Ravel, performed by Lyon National Orchestra courtesy of Naxos of America, Inc; “Symphony No. 9 In D,” written by Gustav Mahler, performed by Polish National Radio Symphony Orchestra, courtesy of Naxos of America, Inc; “Jazz Bar Music,” written and performed by Victor Stumpfhauser; “Symphony No.5 OP. 64 in E Minor: Andante Cantabile," composed by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, arranged and performed by Stefano Seghedoni, courtesy of Chicago Music Library, LLC; “Dream Team, written by Jeff Bernat and Joel Cowell, performed by Jeff Bernat, courtesy of Tunecore; “Symphony No. 4 in F minor Op. 36.2 in Andantino in Modo Di Canzone,” composed by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, performed by RSO Ljubijana Anton Nanut, courtesy of The Savoy Label Group/Selectracks; “Ich Bin Der Welt Abhanden Gekommen [Rückert-Lieder]," written by Gustav Mahler, performed by Violeta Urmana, Wiener Philharmoniker and Pierre Boulez, courtesy of Deutsche Grammophon GmbH, Hamburg, under license from Universal Music Enterprises; “Passacaille (Très large) [Piano Trio in A minor],” composed by Maurice Ravel, performed by Beaux Arts Trio, courtesy of Decca Music Group Limited, under license from Universal Music Enterprises; “Passacaille (Très large) [Piano Trio in A minor],” composed by Maurice Ravel, performed by Victor Stumpfhauser; “Harmonium: III. Wild Nights,” composed by John Adams, performed by the San Francisco Symphony & Chorus, conducted by John Adams, courtesy of Nonesuch Records, by arrangement with Warner Music Group Film & TV Licensing; “Chorus of Exiled Palestinians from The Death of Klinghoffer,” composed by John Adams Libretto by Alice Goodman, performed by the Orchestra of the Opéra de Lyon, conducted by Kent Nagano, The London Opera Chorus, directed by Richard Cooke, courtesy of Nonesuch Records, by arrangement with Warner Music Group Film & TV Licensing; “Symphony No. 2 in E Minor, Op. 27 (movements 1 and 2) Largo, Allegro Moderato,” composed by Sergei Rachmaninoff, performed by Neville Marriner Stutgart Radio Symphony, courtesy of Naxos of America, Inc.
Source Text: Play based on the story "What We Talk About When We Talk About Love" in What We Talk About When We Talk About Love by Raymond Carver (New York, 1981).
Source Authors: Raymond Carver
Music Composer: John Adams
  Jeff Bernat
  Brian Blade
  Joel Cowell
  Alice Goodman
  John Adams Libretto
  Gustav Mahler
  Sergei Rachmaninoff
  Maurice Ravel
  Victor Stumpfhauser
  Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
  Joan Valent
Sung By: Pierre Boulez
  Wiener Philharmoniker
  Victor Stumpfhauser
  Lyon National Orchestra
  Polish National Radio Symphony Orchestra
  Stefano Seghedoni
  Jeff Bernat
  RSO Ljubijana Anton Nanut
  Violeta Urmana
  Beaux Arts Trio
  San Francisco Symphony & Chorus
  Orchestra of the Opéra de Lyon
  Neville Marriner Stutgart Radio Symphony

Cast:   Michael Keaton (Riggan)  
    Zach Galifianakis (Jake)  
    Edward Norton (Mike)  
    Andrea Riseborough (Laura)  
    Amy Ryan (Sylvia)  
    Emma Stone (Sam)  
    Naomi Watts (Lesley)  
    Lindsay Duncan (Tabitha)  
    Merritt Wever (Annie)  
    Jeremy Shamos (Ralph)  
    Bill Camp (Crazy man)  
    Damian Young (Gabriel)  
    Kenny Chin (Korean grocer)  
    Jamahl Garrison-Lowe (Daniel (stagehand))  
    Katherine O'Sullivan (Costume assistant )  
    Keenan Shimizu (Han)  
    Akira Ito (Translator)  
    Natalie Gold (Clara)  
    Michael Siberry (Larry)  
    Clark Middleton (Sydney)  
    William Youmans (Bartender (Tommy))  
    Paula Pell (Lady in bar)  
    David Fierro (Man in bar)  
    Hudson Flynn (Kid in bar (Billy))  
    Warren Kelley (Dresser)  
    Joel Marsh Garland (Stagehand)  
    Brent Bateman (Broadway tourist)  
    Donna Lynne Champlin (Broadway lady)  
    Valentino Musumeci (Broadway kid)  
    Taylor D. Schwencke (Broadway kid)  
    Craig Mums Grant (Broadyway man on street)  
    Kyle Knauf (Annoying Times Square guy)  
    Dave Neal (Annoying Times Square guy)  
    Kelly Southerland (Annoying Times Square guy)  
    Roberta Colindrez (Broadway woman on street)  
    Catherine Peppers (Cashier)  
    Frank Ridley (Mr. Roth)  
    Janis Corsair (Female usher)  
    Rakesh G. Shah (Liquor store owner)  
    Malachi Weir (Guy in window)  
    Jackie Hoffman (Lady on balcony (Mary))  
    Stephen Adly Guirgis (Good neighbor)  
    Glenn Wein (Young male usher)  
    Ebrahim Jaffer (Cab driver)  
    Nicholas Rain Noe (Intermission man)  
    Susan Blackwell (Intermission woman)  
    Anna Hardwick (Blonde reporter)  
    Dusan Dukic (Newscaster)  
    Helena-Alexis Seymour (Newscaster)  
    Ian Finlay (Newscaster)  

Summary: In New York City, at the St. James Theater on Broadway, Riggan Thomson levitates in his dressing room as negative thoughts race through his head, voiced by “Birdman,” the superhero movie role that made Riggan famous more than twenty years ago. At rehearsal, Riggan directs and acts in What We Talk About When We Talk About Love, a play he wrote based on Raymond Carver’s 1981 short story of the same name. Riggan becomes frustrated with his co-star Ralph’s overacting, and is secretly relieved when a light falls on Ralph’s head. Riggan tells Jake, his best friend and producer, that he made the light fall, but Jake does not believe him. Alone in his dressing room, Riggan uses his telekinetic powers to turn off the television, while the Birdman voice tells Riggan he gave away his success. Later, in an interview with three journalists, Riggan wants to talk about the play while the reporters focus on his past as “Birdman.” Riggan reminds them he turned down a role in the fourth Birdman sequel and rejects the idea that the play is an attempt to battle his reputation as a “washed-up superstar.” With the first preview set for the following night, Riggan worries about hiring an actor to replace Ralph. Although Jake suggests they use Ralph’s understudy, cast member Lesley interrupts to suggest her boyfriend, Mike Shiner, a well-respected theater actor. Soon after, Mike arrives and impresses Riggan in an impromptu rehearsal. Sam, Riggan’s daughter and assistant, leads Mike to the costume department and shuns his attempts at flirtation. Sam watches as Mike strips off his clothes, and Lesley arrives for a costume change. Unaware that Sam is in the room, Lesley orders Mike to put on clothes because Sam is always lurking around. She mentions that the girl just got out of a drug rehabilitation program as Sam emerges from behind a clothing rack. Shrugging off Lesley’s insults, Sam calls Mike a “handful” and leaves. Elsewhere, Jake tells Riggan they cannot afford Mike’s fee, but Riggan insists Mike is their dream actor and promises to get the money himself. Riggan’s girl friend, Laura, who is also in the play, pulls him aside to inform him she is pregnant with his child. Riggan appears shocked but promises he is excited. On the night of the first preview, Annie, one of the crewmembers, warns Riggan that Mike is drinking real gin onstage. Riggan refills Mike’s glass with water, and Mike breaks character to defend his drunkenness, saying he is the only one onstage who cares about truth. The audience boos. Riggan instructs Jake to fire Mike, but Jake refuses, saying their advance ticket sales have doubled since his casting was announced. Riggan’s ex-wife, Sylvia, visits his dressing room to ask about Sam. She says their daughter is trying hard to stay sober and needs a father. Distracted, Riggan announces that he is considering re-financing his house in Malibu, California. Sylvia responds that the house is supposed to belong to Sam, and is dismayed when she realizes Riggan plans to re-finance it for the play. Sylvia kisses him goodbye, then recalls the time they broke up when Riggan threw a kitchen knife at her and professed his love immediately afterward. She accuses Riggan of forever confusing admiration with love. Outside, Riggan argues with Mike, who claims previews do not matter. The men go to a bar, and Mike points out Tabitha Dickinson, the New York Times theater critic whose review will be critical to the play’s success. Mike points out that no one in New York cares about Riggan, but is interrupted by a Birdman fan who asks to take a picture with him. Mike asks why Riggan wanted to do a Raymond Carver adaptation, and Riggan produces a note he received from Carver after a play he did in college. Carver wrote, “Thank you for an honest performance.” However, Mike points out that the note is written on a cocktail napkin that suggests the writer was drunk at the time. Back at the theater, Riggan discovers that Sam was smoking marijuana and admonishes her for jeopardizing his career. She tells Riggan he is no longer relevant and needs to accept the fact that nobody cares about him. At another preview, Mike tries to have actual sex with Lesley in a bedroom scene, but she fights him off. The audience laughs at Mike’s erection, and Riggan struggles to remain focused before his character shoots himself. Lesley breaks up with Mike after the performance, and Laura follows her into her dressing room. Lesley has always wanted to act on Broadway, but even now, as her dream is about to be achieved, she feels like a little girl who needs someone to validate her. Riggan interrupts to tell Lesley she is beautiful and he is lucky to have her. After he leaves, Laura comments that Riggan never said anything like that to her. She kisses Lesley, who appears reticent at first but asks Laura to kiss her again. Passing Riggan backstage, Mike suggests he get a more realistic prop gun. Later, Mike finds Sam on the roof of the theater and the two play “Truth or Dare.” Mike admits he is impotent, but Sam points out that he had no problem getting an erection onstage. Mike says nothing is a problem for him when he is acting. The next morning, Laura shows Riggan a copy of the New York Times with a cover story about Mike. The Birdman voice warns that Mike is stealing Riggan’s show. After reading the article, Riggan finds the actor on a tanning bed and accuses him of telling the story of his Raymond Carver encounter as if it happened to him. Riggan punches Mike and the men tussle. The Birdman voice taunts Riggan in his dressing room, saying that without Birdman, Riggan is just a mediocre actor grasping at the last vestiges of his career. Riggan uses telekinesis to send a Birdman poster crashing into the wall. Mike finds Sam on the roof and tells her that Lesley is leaving him. He asks why she resents her father so much, and Sam explains that Riggan was never around but tried to compensate by telling her she was special. Mike says she is undeniably special, and they kiss. She leads him inside to a catwalk above the stage, and they fall into a passionate embrace. During another preview, Laura tells Riggan she lost the baby before going onstage to deliver a monologue. Riggan spies Sam and Mike kissing and goes outside to have a cigarette. The exit door locks behind him, trapping him in the alley with his dressing robe caught in the door. To get back inside, he disrobes and runs down the crowded street in front of the theater clad only in his underwear. Gawking passersby shoot video of Riggan with their cell phones. Frazzled, he returns to the theater for his final scene and approaches the stage from the auditorium. Afterward, he tells Sam the previews have been train wrecks and is worried the play has become a deformed version of himself. She disagrees and shows her father a video of him in his underwear that has already “gone viral” with 350,000 views on the internet. Although he refuses to engage in social media, Sam tells him the viral video represents real power. Riggan goes to the bar next door and sees Tabitha Dickinson, who reveals plans to write a scathing review of his play because of a personal vendetta against spoiled, untrained Hollywood actors like himself. He observes that critics are incapable of judging intention and technique. That night, Riggan gets drunk and wakes up on a stoop. Walking home, he hallucinates Birdman, who follows behind him and convinces him of his superpowers. Riggan imagines himself flying as Birdman declares that he is a god. That night, the play opens. Sylvia congratulates Riggan at intermission and notices he is acting abnormally calm. He reveals that a voice talks to him sometimes, but Sylvia ignores his comment. Riggan recalls their last anniversary party, when he cheated on her and drove to the ocean with plans to drown himself. He says he walked into the water but retreated after jellyfish attacked him. He regrets being a bad father, and Sylvia consoles him. The end of intermission is announced over a loudspeaker. Alone, Riggan loads a real gun instead of a prop gun. In the final scene, he actually shoots himself, and the audience applauds. The next day, Jake visits Riggan at the hospital, rejoicing that Tabitha Dickinson gave the play a rave review and deemed it the birth of “super realism.” Sylvia reminds Jake that Riggan shot his nose off, but Jake ignores her, predicting that the play will be a great success. Sam arrives with lilacs. She tells Riggan she signed him up for a Twitter account and he already has 80,000 followers. She lays her head on his chest, and he comforts her. When she leaves, Riggan goes to the bathroom, removes the bandages from his face, and sees his bruised, transformed appearance. He notices Birdman using the toilet behind him. Afterward, he looks out the window of his hospital room and marvels at birds in the sky. He steps onto the ledge. Sam returns to the empty room and spots the open window. In a panic, she looks out at the sidewalk but sees nothing. Then, looking up at the sky, Sam sees something and smiles.  

 
Genre: Comedy-drama
 
Subject Major: Aging
  Fame
  Fathers and daughters
  Mental illness
  Motion picture actors and actresses
  New York City--Broadway
  Plays
 
Subject Minor: Actors and actresses
  Alcoholism
  Bars
  Comic books
  Critics
  Divorce
  Drug addiction--Rehabilitation
  Drug addicts
  Hallucinations
  Hero worship
  Heroes
  Levitation
  Miscarriage
  Pregnancy
  Psychokinesis
  Rivalry
  Specific theaters
  Suicide

Note: The following statements appear in end credits: “The filmmakers would like to thank the following people: Tess Gallagher; Maria Eladia Hagerman; Alfonso Cuáron; Bryan Lourd; Maria Eladia González; Guillermo Del Toro; Beth Swofford; Eliseo González; Rodrigo Prieto; Roeg Sutherland; Alex Ross; Antoino Urrutia; Bruce Ramer; Ernesto Bolio; Rodrigo Garcia; Tara Kole; Thich Nhat Hanh; Carlos Reygadas; Doug Wald; Robert Neborsky; Andrew Wylie; Steve Golin; David Linde; Gustavo Santaolalla; Judith Weston; Angela Gibbs; Rob Legato; Joe Reidy; Alfredo Arreguin; Jacob Knoll; Stephen Payne; Jake Braver; Jesse Bush”; “Worldview Entertainment would like to give special thanks to the following people: Amanda Bowers; Maria Cestone; Michele Cestone; Vicki Cherkas; Margaret Chu; Conal Duffy; Sarah E. Johnson; Shawn Leventhal; Adam Nathel; Rick Reid”; "Footage from Family Guy courtesy of Twentieth Century Fox Television. All rights reserved”; “Filmed with the support of the New York State Governor’s Office for Motion Picture & Television Development, NY Film New York State, Made in NY, with the assistance of the Government of Canada – Film or Video Production Services Tax Credit, Québec Production Services Tax Credit SODEC”; and, “The making and authorized distribution of this film supported over 12,000 jobs and involved hundreds of thousands of work hours.”
       An item in the 10 Dec 2012 HR announced that Alejandro G. Iñárritu would direct Birdman, which he co-wrote with Nicolás Giacobone, Alexander Dinelaris and Armando Bo. The story was set to take place over three days in one location. According to a 10 Oct 2014 WSJ article, Iñárritu chose the Raymond Carver story, “What We Talk About When We Talk About Love,” published in a collection of short stories of the same name (New York, 1981), for the basis of Riggan Thomson’s play because it was “an extraordinarily bad idea” to adapt Carver to the theater, and only a novice who did not belong in the world of theater would attempt it
       In a 28 Aug 2014 Var article, Iñárritu stated that he thought of Michael Keaton for the role of Riggan Thomson early on and sent him the script. When the two met for dinner, Keaton asked if Iñárritu was making fun of him, since his background as the lead actor in Batman (1989, see entry) and Batman Returns (1992, see entry) closely resembled Riggan’s “Birdman” legacy. Iñárritu assured Keaton otherwise, and the actor accepted the role before they parted ways. Keaton’s casting was announced in a 6 Mar 2013 HR item, which also reported that Naomi Watts, Zach Galifianakis, and Emma Stone had signed on to the project, to be produced by Fox Searchlight and New Regency. A 16 Oct 2014 Var brief noted that budget was less than $20 million, and a 23 Sep 2014 Var column stated that costs were offset by New York State tax breaks.
       According to the 6 Mar 2013 HR, filmmakers anticipated a start date of Apr 2013. Six weeks of rehearsal preceded principal photography, according to a 30 Aug 2014 LAT article. The majority of the thirty-day shoot took place at the St. James Theater, 246 West 44th Street in New York City’s Broadway theater district. Using a Steadicam and relying primarily on the St. James’s theatrical lighting, director of photography Emmanuel Lubezki shot long takes, which were edited together to “create the illusion of a single uninterrupted take,” as noted in the 28 Aug 2014 Var. Actors were required to hit strictly choreographed marks while performing up to fifteen pages of dialogue in a single take. Iñárritu commented that Keaton was “maybe a little rusty at first” but was the “most amazing actor” he had ever worked with. Hundreds of extras were cast as theater-goers, while back rows of the auditorium were populated by dozens of inflatable heads and torsos, according to the 30 Aug 2014 LAT, which also stated that Michael Keaton was filmed walking through Times Square in his underwear for the scene in which Riggan is locked out of the St. James Theater. Onlookers shot video of Keaton with their cell phones and uploaded the footage online, causing the same “viral video sensation in real life” that was depicted in the film.
       The 16 Oct 2014 NYT review noted that a card appears on Riggan’s dressing room mirror with the following quote: “A thing is not what is said of that thing – Susan Sontag.” The review stated that the quote might be “a gloss on a line” from Sontag’s Against Interpretation, and Other Essays (New York, 1966).
       Birdman screened as the opening film of the Venice Film Festival on 27 Aug 2014, before its North American debut on 30 Aug 2014 at the Telluride Film Festival. The picture also served as the closing film of the New York Film Festival, on 12 Oct 2014, five days prior to its theatrical release.
       Critical reception was largely positive. The 27 Aug 2014 Var review declared the film “a triumph on every level,” the HR review of the same date deemed it “one of the most sustained examples of visually fluid tour de force cinema anyone’s ever seen,” and the 17 Oct 2014 LAT review stated that Birdman “belonged to Keaton.” In its opening weekend, the film grossed $415,000 in four theaters, taking in the second highest per-screen average of the year, to that time, behind Grand Budapest Hotel (2014, see entry). A 2 Nov 2014 Var brief announced the film’s cumulative gross of $5 million after two weeks in theaters. The release was scheduled to expand from fifty-six to 100 markets, on a total of about 450 screens, the following week.
       Birdman was named one of AFI’s Movies of the Year. The National Board of Review also named it one of the Top Ten Films of 2014, and awarded Michael Keaton “Best Actor” and Edward Norton “Best Supporting Actor.” The picture also received the following Golden Globe nominations: Best Motion Picture, Musical or Comedy; Best Actor in a Motion Picture, Musical or Comedy (Michael Keaton); Best Supporting Actress in a Motion Picture (Emma Stone); Best Supporting Actor in a Motion Picture (Edward Norton); Best Director – Motion Picture; Best Screenplay – Motion Picture; and Best Original Score – Motion Picture.
       One day before the theatrical release, a 16 Oct 2014 HR article reported that Christopher Woodrow, former CEO of Worldview Entertainment, was suing Worldview for “conversion, breach of fiduciary duty and defamation,” among other allegations. Woodrow was seeking $55 million in damages. Worldview had previously filed a lawsuit against Woodrow, accusing him of embezzlement, fraudulent expense reports, and colluding with former CFO Hoyt David Morgan to be paid millions of dollars and receive executive producer credit on several projects, including Birdman. Meanwhile, Hoyt David Morgan was targeting Worldview and co-founder Maria Cestone with his own lawsuit. While Woodrow did receive onscreen credit as an executive producer of Birdman, the outcome of his lawsuit, as well as Worldview’s and Morgan’s, remains undetermined. (Dec 2014)
 

Note Credits: Geographic location: New York New York United States

Source   Date   Page
Hollywood Reporter   10 Dec 2012.   
Hollywood Reporter   6 Mar 2013   pp. 1-2.
Hollywood Reporter   27 Aug 2014.   
Hollywood Reporter   16 Oct 2014.   
Los Angeles Times   11 Jul 2014   Calendar, p. 2.
Los Angeles Times   22 Jul 2014   Calendar, p. 2.
Los Angeles Times   30 Aug 2014   Calendar, p. 1.
Los Angeles Times   17 Oct 2014   Calendar, p. 1.
Los Angeles Times   20 Oct 2014   Calendar, p. 1.
Los Angeles Times   27 Oct 2014   Calendar, p. 3.
Variety   27 Aug 2014.   
Variety   28 Aug 2014   pp. 58-59.
Variety   23 Sep 2014.   
Variety   16 Oct 2014.   
Variety   2 Nov 2014.   
WSJ   10 Oct 2014   Section D, p. 5.

 
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