AFI Catalog of Feature Films
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Stormy Weather
Alternate Title: Thanks, Pal
Director: Andrew Stone (Dir)
Release Date:   16 Jul 1943
Production Date:   21 Jan--late Feb 1943
Duration (in mins):   78
Duration (in feet):   6,980
Duration (in reels):   9
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Cast:   Lena Horne (Selina Rogers)  
    Bill Robinson (Bill "Corky" Williamson)  
    Cab Calloway   and His Band
    Katherine Dunham   and Her Troupe
    Fats Waller (Himself)  
    Nicholas Brothers (Themselves)  
    Ada Brown (Ada Brown)  
    Dooley Wilson (Gabe Tucker)  
    The Tramp Band (Themselves)  
    Babe Wallace (Chick Bailey)  
    Ernest Whitman (Jim Europe)  
    Zutty Singleton (Zutty)  
    Mae E. Johnson (Mae)  
    Flournoy E. Miller (Miller)  
    Johnny Lee (Lyles)  
    Robert Felder (Cab Calloway, Jr.)  
    Nicodemus Stewart (Jake, chauffeur)  
    William Sneed (Bill)  
    Fred "Tomago" Williams (Dancer)  
    Wilhelmina Gray (Dancer)  
  The Shadracks: Johnny Horace    
  and Ned Stanfield    
    Ruby Golden (Fat girl)  
    Florence O'Brien (Waitress)  
    Tomiwitta Moore (Flower girl)  
    Lena Torrence (Chorus girl)  
    Judy Carol (Chorus girl)  
    Jeni LeGon (Chorus girl)  
    Stymie Beard (Call boy)  
    Coleman Hawkins (Saxophone player in Jim Europe's 15th New York Regiment Band)  
    Taps Miller (Horn player in Jim Europe's 15th New York Regiment Band)  

Summary: On a pleasant day in Hollywood, California, Bill "Corky" Williamson, a semi-retired tap dancer, is teaching his craft to a group of neighborhood children when the mailman delivers a special edition of "Theatre World." The magazine is celebrating "the magnificent contribution of the colored race to the entertainment of the world during the past twenty-five years" and features Bill on the cover. As Bill reads the various dedications from his old friends, he reminisces about the early days of his career. One such dedication from Noble Sissle inspires Bill to remember the hero's welcome he and fellow members of Jim Europe's 15th New York Regiment band received when they returned from France after World War I: Bill and his best friend Gabe live it up in high style in New York City, and Gabe pretends to be a rich talent manager in order to impress his scatterbrained girl friend. At a hall set up as a nightclub for the returning servicemen, Bill sees a beautiful woman and discovers to his amazement that she is Selina Rogers, the sister of a close friend who died in the war. After Selina and Bill dance together, Selina is introduced as the evening's star and joins Jim Europe's band in a song. Selina and Bill are attracted to each other, but her manager, Chick Bailey, gets jealous and intervenes. Selina tries to convince Bill to stay in New York and pursue a dancing career, but Bill says he has a job waiting for him in Memphis and plans to stay there until he can make something of himself. In Memphis, Bill finds work on a riverboat, but when he dances with a group of talented minstrels on board, they encourage him to go down to Beale Street to secure a job as a dancer. One night at Ada Brown's Beale Street café, where Bill has been hired as a waiter, Bailey and Selina stop by looking for new talent to star in Bailey's new show. After Bailey offers roles to Ada, a singer, Fats, a piano player and the café's band, Selina begs him to take Bill, too. Bailey reluctantly agrees and hires Bill as an extra tom-tom player in a dance number. One evening, Bill, frustrated with his assigned role, performs a complex stair-step dance on the drums while Bailey sings. The crowd goes wild, and it takes several seconds before Bailey realizes that they are applauding Bill. When he discovers Bill's ruse, he kicks him out of the theater, but Bill punches Bailey and then has the last word when Selina agrees to go with him for a sandwich in defiance of Bailey. Back in the present, Bill is pleased to read a dedication from former enemy Bailey, who pompously has written that he was the first to recognize Bill's talent. Bill then wonders about his old friend Gabe: As Bill is about to put on his own show, he runs into Gabe, who is working as a bootblack in Harlem. Bill's show is in danger of failing because the chorus girls, who have not been paid, are threatening to quit before the first performance. To help Bill, Gabe shows up at the theater pretending to be a rich impressario and tricks the group into performing. When one of the performers, however, recognizes Gabe as the man who has shined his shoes many times, the group once again turns on him and Bill. Fortunately, Gabe's hired driver has just won money at the races. He agrees to pay the performers' salaries, and the show goes on. Later, Bill, who has earlier married Selina, asks her to move to a little house with him and raise children, but Selina tells him that she must continue to work. She goes to Paris, where she becomes a renowned star. In the present, as Bill is relaxing on his front porch with the neighborhood children, Cab Calloway stops by to pick him up for a big party, which will honor the men who are going overseas to fight in World War II. At the show, Bill reunites with a jive-talking Gabe, who is now working for Cab, and sees Selina perform. Later, she tells him that she wants to return to him and start a family. After several performances by Cab, Gabe and others, Bill and Selina appear together and all ends on a happy note. 

Production Company: Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corp.  
Distribution Company: Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corp.  
Director: Andrew Stone (Dir)
Producer: William LeBaron (Prod)
  Irving Mills (Asst to prod)
Writer: Frederick Jackson (Scr)
  Ted Koehler (Scr)
  H. S. Kraft (Adpt)
  Jerry Horwin (From an orig story by)
  Seymour B. Robinson (From an orig story by)
Photography: Leon Shamroy (Dir of photog)
Art Direction: James Basevi (Art dir)
  Joseph C. Wright (Art dir)
Film Editor: James B. Clark (Film ed)
Set Decoration: Thomas Little (Set dec)
  Fred J. Rode (Set dec)
Costumes: Helen Rose (Cost des)
Music: Emil Newman (Mus dir)
  Fanchon (Mus seq supv by)
Sound: Alfred Bruzlin (Sd)
  Roger Heman (Sd)
Special Effects: Fred Sersen (Spec photog eff)
Dance: Clarence Robinson (Dances staged by)
Make Up: Guy Pearce (Makeup artist)
Stand In: Maggie Hathaway (Stand-in for Lena Horne)
Country: United States

Music: "The Darktown Strutters' Ball" by Shelton Brooks; "Margie," music by Con Conrad and J. Russel Robinson; "Ja-Da" by Bob Carleton; "At a Georgia Camp Meeting," music by Kerry Mills; "De Camptown Races" by Stephen Collins Foster.
Songs: "There's No Two Ways About Love," words by Ted Koehler, music by James P. Johnson and Irving Mills; "Linda Brown," words and music by Alvis Cowens; "That Ain't Right," words and music by Nat King Cole and Irving Mills; "Ain't Misbehavin'," words by Andy Razaf, music by Thomas "Fats" Waller and Harry Brooks; "Diga Diga Doo," words by Dorothy Fields, music by Jimmy McHugh; "I Lost My Sugar in Salt Lake City," words and music by Leon René and Johnny Lange; "I Can't Give You Anything But Love," words by Dorothy Fields, music by Jimmy McHugh, special lyrics by Eddie Jones; "Geechy Joe," words and music by Cab Calloway, Jack Palmer and Andy Gibson; "Stormy Weather," words by Ted Koehler, music by Harold Arlen; "My, My, Ain't That Somethin'," words and music by Harry Tobias and Pinky Tomlin; "The Jumpin' Jive (Jim Jam Jump)," words and music by Cab Calloway, Frank Froeba and Jack Palmer; "African Dance," words by Langston Hughes, music by Clarence Muse and Connie Bemis.
Composer: Stephen Collins Foster
  Harold Arlen
  Connie Bemis
  Harry Brooks
  Shelton Brooks
  Cab Calloway
  Bob Carleton
  Nat King Cole
  Con Conrad
  Alvis Cowens
  Dorothy Fields
  Frank Froeba
  Andy Gibson
  Langston Hughes
  James P. Johnson
  Eddie Jones
  Ted Koehler
  Johnny Lange
  Jimmy McHugh
  Irving Mills
  Kerry Mills
  Clarence Muse
  Jack Palmer
  Andy Razaf
  Leon René
  J. Russel Robinson
  Harry Tobias
  Pinky Tomlin
  Thomas (Fats) Waller

Copyright Claimant Copyright Date Copyright Number
Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corp. 16/7/1943 dd/mm/yyyy LP12206

PCA NO: 9101
Physical Properties: b&w: Sepiatone
  Sd: Western Electric Recording

 
Genre: Musical
Sub-Genre: African American
 
Subjects (Major): African Americans
  Dancers
  Romance
  Show business
  Singers
 
Subjects (Minor): Benefit performances
  Blues music
  Chorus girls
  Dismissal (Employment)
  Jealousy
  Memphis (TN)
  New York City--Harlem
  Reunions
  Ruses
  Soldiers
  Veterans
  World War I
  World War II

Note: The working title of this film was Thanks, Pal . According to contemporary sources, the film was loosely based on Bill "Bojangles" Robinson's life and was advertised as a "cavalcade of Negro entertainment." Robinson, who was born in 1878, began dancing professionally when he was eight and became a vaudeville and musical stage star before appearing in his first film, Dixiana , in 1930 (see AFI Catalog of Feature Films, 1921-30 ; F2.1367). He was the originator of the stair tap routine and enjoyed a reputation as one of the world's leading tap dancers. Stormy Weather marked Robinson's return to the screen after a five-year absence, and was his last film. He died in 1949.
       Stormy Weather was the second all-black cast film made by a major studio in the 1940's; M-G-M's Cabin in the Sky was released just prior to Stormy Weather and also starred Lena Horne (see above entry). The famous comedy team of Miller & Lyles was recreated for the film, with Flournoy E. Miller playing himself and Johnny Lee replacing the deceased Aubrey Lyles. According to a 12 Nov 1942 HR news item, Louis Armstrong was sought for a role in the picture. Irving Mills, a composer and publisher of Harlem musical artists, who is credited onscreen as producer and William LeBaron's assistant, was hired because of his experience with "negro shows," according to a 24 Sep 1942 HR news item. News items in California Eagle include Lucille Battles, Anise Boyer and Cleo Herndon in the cast and note that Nadine Cole, Nat King Cole's wife, dances in the picture. News items also list the following musicians as members of Jim Europe's band: Charles Wellan, Ulysses Banks, Earl Hale, Maxwell Davis, Theodore Shirley, Lawrence Lassiter, Bert Brooks, Leo McCoy Davis, Herman Pickett, Eddie Myart, Rabon Tarrant, Barron Morehead, Happy Johnson, John Haughton, James Johnson, Carl George, Eddie Hutchinson, James Porter and Teddy Buckner. The participation of these performers in the final film has not been confirmed, however.
       According to memos in the MPAA/PCA Collection at the AMPAS Library, some lyrics in the following songs were deemed unacceptable by the PCA: "That Ain't Right," "Yeah Man! [Linda Brown]," "Diga Diga Doo," "Geechy Joe," "Nobody," "That Man of Mine Is Dynamite," and "Good for Nothin' Joe." The last three songs were not heard in the final film. In "Diga Diga Doo," certain suggestive lyrics were changed, and in "Geechy Joe," the phrase "his jimson blues" was changed to "the lonesome blues." A few seconds of an instrumental, "Moppin' and Boppin'" by Fats Waller, Benny Carter and Ed Kirkeby, are heard at the beginning of the Memphis café sequence.
       According to a Feb 1943 editorial in California Eagle , William Grant Still, who was a famous African-American composer, was hired as the film's music supervisor, but resigned "because [his] conscience would not let [him] accept money to help carry on a tradition directly opposed to the welfare of thirteen million people." In the editorial, Still accused the studio of labeling "Negro" music and dancing as cruder and rougher than the quality numbers that he was producing and that his musical arrangements were thus unrealistic. He also stated that one member of the crew declared that "'Negro bands didn't play that well.'" Still called on the black public to write letters to Twentieth Century-Fox and other major studios pointing out the faults in their representations of black culture and society. Despite Still's protest, Stormy Weather was praised by the mainstream press for its music and dancing. Var lauded its "all-colored cast" and the fact that it had not been "permitted to engage in any grotesque or theatrically 'typed' concepts of Negro behaviourism."
       The Var review also mentioned the "intra-trade concern" over the age difference between the film's romantic leads, Horne and Robinson, who was some forty years her senior, but noted that "the illusion comes off quite well." However, California Eagle reported on 8 Apr 1943 that a "highly indignant" Robinson was set to sue "several publications" for printing the story that Stormy Weather would be remade with another, presumably younger, male romantic lead.
       According to studio production notes on the film, the film's principal performers broadcast their musical numbers to servicemen overseas using short-wave radio. Stormy Weather and Cabin in the Sky were released during three of the nation's worst race riots. According to modern sources, the riots, which took place in Harlem, Detroit and Los Angeles (the latter known as the "zoot suit" riots) almost caused Twentieth Century-Fox to pull the film from theaters. Even though half of all first-run theaters refused to book it, the picture was a box office hit, according to an Aug 1943 HR news item. 

Bibliographic Sources:   Date   Page
Box Office   29 May 1943.   
California Eagle   3 Feb 43   p. 2.
California Eagle   17 Feb 43   p. 2.
California Eagle   3 Mar 1943.   
California Eagle   8 Mar 43   p. 2.
California Eagle   8 Apr 1943.   
Daily Variety   27 May 43   p. 3.
Film Daily   28 May 43   p. 7.
Hollywood Reporter   12 Nov 42   p. 6.
Hollywood Reporter   7 Jan 43   p. 1.
Hollywood Reporter   21 Jan 43   p. 1.
Hollywood Reporter   9 Aug 43   p. 1.
Hollywood Reporter   10 Aug 43   p. 1.
Hollywood Reporter   27 May 43   p. 3.
Hollywood Reporter   26 Jul 43   p. 8.
Motion Picture Herald Product Digest   6 Mar 43   p. 1192.
Motion Picture Herald Product Digest   29 May 43   p. 1337.
Motion Picture Herald Product Digest   17 Jul 43   p. 1432.
New York Times   22 Jul 43   p. 15.
Variety   2 Jun 43   p. 8.
Variety   6 Jun 1943.   

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