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Robin Hood: Men in Tights
Director: Mel Brooks (Dir)
Release Date:   1993
Premiere Information:   Los Angeles opening: 28 Jul 1993; New York opening: week of 28 Jul 1993
Duration (in mins):   104
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Cast:   Cary Elwes (Robin Hood)  
    Richard Lewis (Prince John)  
    Roger Rees (Sheriff of Rottingham)  
    Amy Yasbeck (Marian)  
    Mark Blankfield (Blinkin)  
    Dave Chappelle (Ahchoo)  
    Isaac Hayes (Asneeze)  
    Megan Cavanagh (Broomhilde)  
    Eric Allan Kramer (Little John)  
    Matthew Porretta (Will Scarlet O'Hara)  
  and Tracey Ullman (Latrine) as
    Patrick Stewart (King Richard)  
    Dom DeLuise (Don Giovanni)  
    Dick Van Patten (The abbot)  
    Robert Ridgely (The hangman)  
    Mel Brooks (Rabbi Tuckman)  
    Steve Tancora (Filthy Luca)  
    Joe Dimmick (Dirty Ezio)  
    Avery Schreiber (Tax assessor)  
    Chuck McCann (Villager)  
    Brian George (Dungeon maitre d')  
    Zitto Kazann (Head Saracen guard)  
    Richard Assad (Assistant Saracen guard)  
    Herman Poppe (Sheriff's guard)  
    Clive Revill (Fire marshall)  
    Joe Baker (Angry villager)  
    Carol Arthur (Complaining villager)  
    Kelly Jones (Buxom lass)  
    Clement Von Franckenstein (Royal announcer)  
    Corbin Allred (Young lad)  
    Chase Masterson (Giggling court lady)  
    Don Lewis (Mime)  
    Roger Owens (Peanut vendor)  
    Patrick Valenzuela (Lead camel jockey)  
  Sherwood Forest rapper-dancers: Steffon    
    Dante Henderson    
    Bryant Baldwin    
    Diesko Boyland Jr.    
  [and] Edgar Godineaux Jr.    
  Merry Men dancers: Johnny Dean Harvey    
    Keith Diorio    
    Joseph R. McKee    
    Nathan Prevost    
    Don Hesser    
    Bill Bohl    
    Chris Childers    
  [and] Raymond Del Barrio    
  Inept archers: Malcolm Danare    
    Edwin Hale    
    Nick Jameson    
    Peter Pitofsky    
  [and] Nicholas Rempel    
  Party guests: Rudy De Luca    
    Matthew Saks    
    Robin Shepard    
  [and] Dee Gubin    
  Wedding guests: Johnny Cocktails    
    Lisa Cordray    
    Laurie Main    
    Elaine Ballace    
  [and] Stuart Schreiber    
  Villagers: James Van Patten    
    Ira Miller    
    David DeLuise    
    Lillian D'Arc    
    Patrick Brymer    
    Robert Noble    
    Henry Kaiser    
    Tony Tanner    
    Diana Chesney    
    James Glaser    
  [and] Ronny Graham    

Summary: At Khalil Prison in Jerusalem, a new inmate, Robin of Loxley, is interrogated about the location of his king. When Robin feigns ignorance, he is tortured with “tongue looseners” and chained next to an elderly African man. The men break their shackles, liberate their fellow inmates and proceed to the coast, where the African man introduces himself as Asneeze. He tells Robin that his son, Ahchoo, is an exchange student in England, and asks Robin to look out for him when he returns home. Robin vows to comply, then swims from Israel to England. After renting a horse, Robin comes upon guards beating a young man, whom he identifies as Ahchoo. Robin rescues Ahchoo and they ride to Loxley Hall, Robin's home, just as it is wheeled away. When Robin demands an explanation, he is presented with an edict signed by Prince John that declares the property repossessed in lieu of payment for back taxes. As Loxley Hall is pulled from its foundation, Blinkin, the Loxleys' blind servant, remains inside on the toilet, unaware that the walls around him are gone. Although thrilled that Robin has returned safely from the Crusades, Blinkin reports the unfortunate news that Robin’s entire family, including his dog, goldfish and cat, have died. Giving Robin a locket Blinkin tells his master that his father wanted him to have it because it contains the key to “the greatest treasure in all the land.” As they leave the remains of Loxley Hall, Robin, Blinkin and Ahchoo are approached by a boy who is running away from the Sheriff of Rottingham and his men. The Sheriff claims the boy is guilty of hunting deer on the king's grounds, an offense punishable by death; but Robin informs the Sheriff that he has been fighting with King Richard in the Crusades. Humiliated by his speech impediment and his tactical blunders, the Sheriff retreats and the grateful boy returns home with the message that Robin will defend the people against injustice. Meanwhile, inside the king’s castle, young Marian sings longingly from her bath about finding true love when her maid, Broomhilde, advises her to get out of the tub before her chastity belt rusts. Marian wishes on a bluebird for the arrival of the man who possesses the key to her metaphorical heart. When the Sheriff warns Prince John of Robin's return, the prince visits the clairvoyant witch Latrine for guidance. She agrees to concoct a magic potion to stop Robin if Prince John helps her attract the object of her affection, the Sheriff. Riding through the forest, Robin, Blinkin and Ahchoo meet Little John, who demands a bridge toll, and Robin challenges him to a duel. After Robin knocks Little John from the bridge into the stream below, Little John thinks he is drowning, and when Robin helps him up, he thanks Robin for saving his life. Little John introduces his best friend, Will Scarlet O'Hara, who demonstrates his talent with daggers by pulverizing an oncoming arrow. When Little John explains that he must demand a toll because Prince John has robbed the people of their livelihood, Robin says he is plotting against the prince and plans to crash his party that evening. Little John offers to help, but Robin says the job will be easier done alone. At the party, the Sheriff flirts with Marian when Robin arrives, wielding a boar corpse as a gift. As Robin and Marian exchange seductive introductions, the Sheriff angrily stutters that hunting is illegal in the king’s forest, but Robin reminds Prince John that he has illegally usurped the king’s power in his absence. Robin warns that if the prince does not cease levying unjust taxes, he will lead the people in a revolt. When the Sheriff challenges him to a duel, Robin finds himself outnumbered against the Sheriff’s guards, but Ahchoo, Blinkin, Little John, and Will come to the rescue. During the fight, Robin and Marian declare their love for one another and despite an influx of armored troops Robin and his men are able to hold them off. Back in the forest, Little John introduces Robin to his newly formed army, but Robin is disappointed by the disheveled rabble, and as he attempts to rally the troops, they fall asleep. Ahchoo steps in and rouses them with revolutionary slogans. During their disastrous training routines, Robin and his Merry Men befriend Rabbi Tuckman, the wine seller and moyel, who informs Robin that Marian is longing for him. Meanwhile, at the castle, the Sheriff hires Mafioso Don Giovanni to eliminate Robin, and the Don tells him to lure Robin to the fair the following day with an archery contest. When the Sheriff warns that Robin is the best archer in the land, the Don claims his associate, Filthy Luca, will beat him and plans to have Robin killed by Dirty Ezio after the event. Marian overhears the meeting and rides into the forest with Broomhilde to warn Robin. Although Robin initially agrees not to attend the fair, he is tempted by the archery contest. Taking Marian aside, Robin asks for a kiss, but Marian tells him she is a virgin and he discovers her chastity belt. She describes a scroll that foretells the presence of a man with a special key to unlock it, and before the couple can kiss, Broomhilde interrupts and guides Marian back to the castle. The next day, Little John, Ahchoo, Will, and Blinkin arrive at the fair dressed as women. As the archery contest begins, Dirty Ezio waits in the tower, armed with a crossbow. Two archers, Luca and an old man, hit the bulls-eye in the first round, but after a successful second shot, the Sheriff announces that the old man is Robin in disguise. Robin takes off his mask and the crowd cheers, but after Luca splits Robin's arrow in two, winning the contest, the crowd cheers for Luca. As Robin aims for one last shot, the Sheriff motions for Dirty Ezio to kill him, but Blinkin catches Ezio’s arrow before it hits his master. When Robin’s second arrow obliterates the bulls-eye, the Sheriff calls for his arrest. Marian intercedes and promises to marry the Sheriff if Robin's life is spared. The wedding proceeds as Robin waits on the scaffold attached to a noose, in case Marian changes her mind. Before Marian says: "I do," Ahchoo shoots an arrow through Robin's noose, freeing him, and the Merry Men arrive to fight the guards. When the Sheriff takes Marian into the castle tower, he discovers her chastity belt and uses a jackhammer to break the lock. Robin and the Sheriff duel in a sword fight, but as the Sheriff attempts to cut his rival’s throat, Robin’s locket is released from his neck and smashes against the ceiling. The key flies from its enclosure and lands in the lock to Marian’s chastity belt. While attempting to sneak up on Robin, the Sheriff impales himself on Robin's sword, but Latrine rushes in and says she will give him a magic pill to survive if he agrees to marry her. He begrudgingly agrees and Latrine administers the pill, pulls out the sword and makes off with her new mate. Robin carries Marian to bed, but before he can unlock her belt, Broomhilde interrupts and insists that they marry first. Outside, Rabbi Tuckman performs the wedding ceremony. As he attempts to pronounce the couple man and wife an objection is raised by King Richard, who has just returned from the crusades. Taking his crown back from Prince John, the king punishes his brother by proclaiming that all toilets in the kingdom will be called "johns" and sentencing him to the Tower of London. The king then returns all Loxley properties to Robin, who is named ruler of Sherwood and knighted. After kissing Marian passionately, the king allows the wedding to conclude. Before leaving on his honeymoon, Robin appoints Ahchoo as the new Sheriff of Rottingham. Back at Loxley Hall later that night, Robin finally turns the key to Marian’s chastity belt. When the lock won't open, Robin calls out for a locksmith.  

Production Company: Brooksfilms  
Distribution Company: Twentieth Century Fox  
Director: Mel Brooks (Dir)
  Peter Schindler (2d unit dir)
  Judith Moore (2d 2d asst dir)
  Mark Tobey (Addl 2d 2d asst dir)
Producer: Mel Brooks (Prod)
  Peter Schindler (Exec prod)
  Evan Chandler (Assoc prod)
Writer: Mel Brooks (Scr)
  Evan Chandler (Scr)
  J. David Shapiro (Scr)
  J. David Shapiro (Story)
  Evan Chandler (Story)
Photography: Michael D. O'Shea (Dir of photog)
  Lloyd Ahern, II (Addl photog)
  Michael Genne (Cam op)
  Steven H. Smith (2d cam op)
  Michael Chavez (1st asst cam)
  Kenneth Kenny Nishino (1st asst 2d cam)
  Sean J. O'Shea (2d asst cam)
  Vincent Mata (2d asst cam)
  Martin Glover (Film loader)
  Lindsay P. Hill (Videotape op)
  Gary Tandrow (Gaffer)
  James M. Cox (Best boy elec)
  Jerry Enright (Rigging gaffer)
  Michael J. Bailey (Set lighting)
  William T. McKane (Set lighting)
  Norm Berens (Set lighting)
  James Krattiger (Set lighting)
  Thomas P. Powell (Set lighting)
  Scott M. Robinson (Key grip)
  Richard Redlin (Best boy grip)
  Albert Ramos (Dolly grip)
  Dave Canestro (2d dolly grip)
  James D. Doherty (Grip)
  Laszlo Horvath (Grip)
  Robert Duggan (Rigging key grip)
  Tom Prophet Jr. (2d unit key grip)
  Peter Sorel (Still photog)
  Robert Isenberg (Still photog)
  Chapman (Cranes and dollies)
  Hollywood Rental Co., Inc./Matthews Group (Loc lighting equip supplied by)
Art Direction: Roy Forge Smith (Prod des)
  Stephen Myles Berger (Art dir)
  Jacqueline C. English (Art dept coord)
  Dennis M. Brown (Art dept prod asst)
Film Editor: Stephen E. Rivkin (Film ed)
  Darren T. Holmes (Assoc ed)
  Gina Lombardo-Silano (Asst ed)
  Cynthia E. Thornton (Asst ed)
  Ewa Zbroniec (Asst ed)
  Gary Burritt (Negative cutter)
Set Decoration: Ronald R. Reiss (Set dec)
  David M. Haber (Sr set des)
  Cate Bangs (Sr set des)
  Bruce Robert Hill (Set des)
  Gary A. Lee (Set des)
  Chuck Lipscomb (Leadman)
  Jack M. Marino (Prop master)
  Jennifer Dawson (Asst prop master)
  Glen Kennedy (Asst prop master)
  Mark Boucher (Set dressing)
  Nigel A. Boucher (Set dressing)
  Philip Calhoun (Set dressing)
  Terry A. Sheffield (Drapery)
  David R. Newhouse (Greens foreman)
  W. Wayne Walser (Const coord)
  Tim Lafferty (Gen const foreman)
  Karl Walser (Const foreman)
  Terry Kempf (Const foreman)
  C. Jonas Kirk (Propmaker foreman)
  Larry Wise (Supv labor foreman)
  Paul A. Minitello (Paint foreman)
  David Goldstein (Paint foreman)
  Al Kenders (Standby painter)
Costumes: Dodie Shepard (Cost des)
  Christine Heinz (Cost supv)
  Charles DeMuth (Cost supv)
  Robert Q. Mathews (Key cost)
Music: Hummie Mann (Mus)
  Brad Dechter (Orch)
  Frank Bennett (Addl orch)
  Don Nemitz (Addl orch)
  Chris Ledesma (Mus ed)
  Gary Wasserman (Asst mus ed)
  Armin Steiner (Scoring mixer)
  Rick Riccio (Mus mixer)
  Sandy DeCrescent (Mus contractor)
  Steve Lively (Vocal contractor)
  Joann Kane Music Services (Mus preparation)
Sound: Jeff Wexler (Prod sd)
  Don Coufal (Prod sd)
  Gary Holland (Prod sd)
  Visiontrax Inc. (Sd eff)
  Gregory M. Gerlich (Supv sd ed)
  Gary S. Gerlich (Supv sd ed)
  Richard M. LeGrand Jr. (Sd ed)
  William Jacobs (Sd ed)
  Bruce Lacey (Sd ed)
  Andy Kopetzky (Sd ed)
  Harry E. Snodgrass (Sd des)
  Petra Bach (Supv ADR ed)
  Robert Ulrich (ADR ed)
  Michelle Pleis-Stirber (Asst sd ed)
  Samuel L. Webb (Asst sd ed)
  Kelly J. Quinn (ADR asst ed)
  David L. Horton, Jr. (Foley ed)
  Scot A. Tinsley (Foley ed)
  Skywalker Sound a division of Lucas Digital Ltd. (Post prod services provided by)
  Steve Maslow (Re-rec mixer)
  Gregg Landaker (Re-rec mixer)
  Mark "Frito" Long (Rec)
  Chris Minkler (Loader)
  Brian Fowler (Loader)
  Joe Brennan (Stage eng)
  Charleen Richards (ADR mixer)
  Robert Deschaine (ADR mixer)
  Greg Steele (ADR rec)
  David Jobe (ADR rec)
  Dan O'Connell (Foley artist)
  Gary "Wrecker" Hecker (Foley artist)
  James Ashwill (Foley mixer)
  Nerses Gezalyan (Foley rec)
  L.A. Maddogs (ADR group)
Special Effects: Richard Ratliff (Spec eff coord)
  Wayne Rose (Spec eff)
  Fred Tessaro (Spec eff)
  R. Michael Bisetti (Spec eff)
  Roger W. Lifsey (Spec eff)
  Terry P. Chapman (Spec eff)
  Mark R. Lilienthal (Spec eff)
  VCE (Main title des)
  Peter Kuran (Main title des, VCE)
  Kevin O'Neill (Supv, Main title des)
  Cinema Research Corporation (Titles and opticals by)
  Illusion Arts, Inc. (Matte paintings and Patriot Arrow eff)
  Syd Dutton (Matte paintings and Patriot Arrow eff, Illusion Arts, Inc.)
  Bill Taylor (Matte paintings and Patriot Arrow eff, Illusion Arts)
  Dream Quest Images (Visual eff by)
  Mat Beck (Visual eff supv, Dream Quest Images)
  Optic Nerve (Animatronix by)
Dance: Cindy Montoya-Picker (Choreog)
Make Up: Bari Dreiband-Burman (Make-up dept head)
  Thomas R. Burman (Spec make-up eff)
  Carol Schwartz (Cary Elwes' make-up)
  Todd A. McIntosh (Make-up artist)
  Blake Shepard (Make-up artist)
  Linle White (Key hair stylist)
  Susan Zietlow-Maust (Hair stylist)
  Judith Tiedemann (Hair stylist)
Production Misc: Lindsay D. Chag (Casting)
  Bill Shepard (Casting)
  Charlie Messenger (Extras casting)
  Caryn Richmond (Casting asst)
  Arlane J. Crawford (Casting asst)
  Robert Latham Brown (Exec in charge of prod)
  Leah Zappy (Brooksfilms prod exec)
  Marshall I. Schlom (Scr supv)
  Bill Bowling (Loc mgr)
  Alyson Evans (Prod coord)
  Steve Kornacki (Asst prod coord)
  Cynthia Quan (Prod accountant)
  Josh Ornstein (Asst accountant)
  Linden Wineland Johnson (Post prod accountant)
  Saul Kahan (Pub)
  Victor Paul (Sword and fight coord)
  Jack Verbois (Archery master)
  Corky Randall (Wrangler ramrod)
  Julie Adams (Dialogue coach)
  Jeff Bye (Asst to Mel Brooks)
  Tessa Francis (Asst to the prods)
  Lisann M. Karmiol (Asst to the prods)
  Christine Coates (Asst to the prods)
  Suzanne C. Geiger (DGA trainee)
  David McWhirter (DGA trainee)
  Ken Bellanca (Asst to Cary Elwes)
  Tricia Miles (Prod asst)
  Kurt Valles (Prod asst)
  Ron Chesney (Prod asst)
  Chris Armstrong (Prod asst)
  Valerie O'Brien (Clearance research)
  Jim Chesney (Transportation coord)
  Charles Renfroe (Transportation capt)
  John Armstrong (Transportation capt)
  Michelson Food Services, Inc. (Caterer)
  Antoine Mascaro (Chef, Michelson Food Services)
  John S. Moy (Craft service)
  Jonas C. Matz (First aid)
  Rancho Maria, Canyon Country, CA (Ranch loc - Frank and Vera Vacek's)
Stand In: Brian Burrows (Stunt coord)
  Dan Barringer (Stunts)
  John Phillip (Stunts)
  Blair Burrows (Stunts)
  Charles Picerni Jr. (Stunts)
  Erik Cord (Stunts)
  Steve Picerni (Stunts)
  Danny Costa (Stunts)
  Jim Pratt (Stunts)
  Kiante Elam (Stunts)
  Philip J. Romano (Stunts)
  George Fisher (Stunts)
  George Marshall Ruge (Stunts)
  Lance Gilbert (Stunts)
  Ben R. Scott (Stunts)
  Troy Gilbert (Stunts)
  Paul G. Stalone (Stunts)
  Larry Holt (Stunts)
  R. L. Tolbert (Stunts)
  Loren Janes (Stunts)
  Richard Warlock (Stunts)
  Robert J. Jauregui (Stunts)
  Ted White (Stunts)
  Clint Lilley (Stunts)
  Bob Yerkes (Stunts)
  William James Madden (Stunts)
Color Personnel: Dale Caldwell (Col timer)
MPAA Rating: PG-13
Country: United States
Language: English

Songs: "Men in Tights," words and music by Mel Brooks, performed by The Merry Men Singers: Steve Lively, Randy Crenshaw, Kerry Katz, Geoff Koch, Rick Logan; "Marian," words by Mel Brooks, music by Hummie Mann, Maid Marian's singing voice performed by Debbie James, end credit duet performed by Cathy Dennis and Lance Ellington, Cathy Dennis courtesy of Polydor Records; "Sherwood Forest Rap," words by Mel Brooks, music Hummie Mann, performed by Kevin Dorsey and the Merry Men Singers; "The Night Is Young and You're So Beautiful," words by Billy Rose and Irving Kahal, music Dana Suesse, courtesy of Pic Corporation, Chappell Music Co., Inc. and Words and Music, Inc., performed by Arthur Rubin and the Merry Men Singers.
Composer: Mel Brooks
  Irving Kahal
  Hummie Mann
  Billy Rose
  Dana Suesse
Source Text:

Copyright Claimant Copyright Date Copyright Number
Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation 28/7/1993 dd/mm/yyyy PA620163

PCA NO: 32547
Physical Properties: Sd: Dolby Stereo® in selected theatres
  col: Deluxe®
  Lenses/Prints: Filmed with Panavision cameras & lenses

Genre: Adventure
Subjects (Major): Adventures
  Class distinction
  Robin Hood (Legendary character)
Subjects (Minor): Archers and archery
  Female impersonation
  Jerusalem (Israel)
  Knights and knighthood
  Premarital sex
  Race relations
  Unrequited love
  Witches and witchcraft

Note: The summary and note for this entry were completed with participation from the AFI Academic Network. Summary and note were written by participant Fitrah Hamid, a student at Georgia Institute of Technology, with Melanie Kohnen as academic advisor.

       According to a 13 Jun 1993 article in LAT , the story for Robin Hood: Men in Tights was first pitched to screenwriter J. David Shapiro during an appointment with his dentist, Evan Chandler. After the success of Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves (1991, see entry), Chandler’s eleven year-old son, Jordi, had suggested a Robin Hood parody, and Shapiro partnered with Chandler to develop a script. A 1 Mar 1993 news item in DV reports that the screenplay was sold to director-producer Mel Brooks for $500,000. Although Brooks also receives top billing as screenwriter in the film’s credits, the question of authorship resulted in a Writers Guild arbitration. As reported in the LAT article, Brooks argued that only he and Shapiro were due screenplay credit, while Chandler was responsible for the story. Brooks also pointed out that he had already created a parody of Robin Hood in his 1975 television series for ABC, When Things Were Rotten . In the opening credits, Chandler shares story by credits with Shapiro, as well as being credited as screenwriter, with Brooks and Shapiro, and associate producer. LAT noted that Jordi was considered for inclusion in the credits, but his name is not mentioned in the film.
       In addition to the ABC television series, a Brooksfilms Limited film parody of Robin Hood may have developed long before the release of Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves and Chandler and Shapiro’s script, according to various contemporary sources, including LAHExam on 31 Dec 1981 and HR on 4 Nov 1981. LAHExam reported that Brooks signed a deal with Wall Street investment banking company D. H. Blair & Co. to raise $8 million for the film, which was set to be distributed by Columbia Pictures. HR announced the conclusion of negotiations between Brooksfilms and Columbia for Robin Hood and stated that production was scheduled to begin spring 1982 in England. LAHExam noted that Brooks was reluctant to work with Twentieth Century-Fox after what he considered to be their inadequate distribution of History of the World – Part I (1981, see entry), but on 28 Sep 1992, HR announced that the film would be co-financed with Brooksfilms and Twentieth Century-Fox, who was set to distribute the film domestically and in various foreign countries. Brooks noted in HR that Brooksfilms’ equity partner, Gaumont, contributed half of the funding for foreign distribution and Canal Plus was contracted to handle television distribution in Europe. Brooks also reported that he would perform in the role of “Rabbi Tuckman” without billing, but he is credited both in the end crawl and during a concluding sequence with four other actors in cameo roles – Patrick Stewart as “King Richard,” Dom DeLuise as “Don Giovanni,” Dick Van Patten as “The Abbot,” and Robert Ridgely as “The Hangman.” This sequence appears prior to the final scene of the film, when Robin is unable to unlock Marian’s chastity belt.
       As reported in HR production charts on 12 Jan 1993, shooting began 5 Jan 1993 in Los Angeles. According to studio production notes from AMPAS library files, Sherwood Forest, the Spring Fair and the castle were shot on location at Sable Ranch, which is thirty-five miles north of Los Angeles. Interiors were filmed at Warner Hollywood Studios, where Douglas Fairbanks in Robin Hood (1923, see entry) was shot.
Robin Hood: Men in Tights opened to mixed reviews. In 1994, the film was nominated by the Young Artist Awards in the category of Outstanding Family Motion Picture – Comedy.


Bibliographic Sources:   Date   Page
Daily Variety   1 Mar 1993.   
Hollywood Reporter   4 Nov 1981.   
Hollywood Reporter   28 Sep 1992   pp. 1-2, 18.
Hollywood Reporter   20 Oct 1992.   
Hollywood Reporter   12 Jan 1993.   
Hollywood Reporter   28 Jul 1993   p. 6, 11.
LAHExam   31 Dec 1981.   
Los Angeles Times   13 Jun 1993.   
Los Angeles Times   28 Jul 1993   p. 5.
New York Times   28 Jul 1993   p. 13.
People   23 Aug 1993.   
Variety   9 Aug 1993   p. 35.

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