AFI Catalog of Feature Films
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The Shining
Director: Stanley Kubrick (Dir)
Release Date:   1980
Premiere Information:   Los Angeles and New York openings: 23 May 1980
Production Date:   ended Apr 1979 at Elstree Studios, Ltd., Borehamwood, England
Duration (in mins):   143
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Cast:   Jack Nicholson (Jack Torrance)  
    Shelley Duvall (Wendy Torrance)  
  Featuring Danny Lloyd (Danny)  
  Featuring Scatman Crothers (Hallorann)  
  Featuring Barry Nelson ([Stuart] Ullman)  
  Featuring Philip Stone (Grady)  
  Featuring Joe Turkel (Lloyd)  
  Featuring Anne Jackson (Doctor)  
  Featuring Tony Burton (Durkin)  
    Lia Beldam (Young woman in bath)  
    Billie Gibson (Old woman in bath)  
    Barry Dennen (Watson)  
    David Baxt (Forest ranger 1)  
    Manning Redwood (Forest ranger 2)  
    Lisa Burns (Grady daughter)  
    Louise Burns (Grady daughter)  
    Robin Pappas (Nurse)  
    Alison Coleridge (Secretary)  
    Burnell Tucker (Policeman)  
    Jana Sheldon (Stewardess)  
    Kate Phelps (Receptionist)  
    Norman Gay (Injured guest)  

Summary: In the Colorado mountains, teacher and writer Jack Torrance interviews for the position of off-season caretaker at the Overlook Hotel. Because the area becomes snowbound in winter, only the caretaker and his family remain onsite from December to May. The hotel’s manager, Stuart Ullman, cautions Jack that in 1970, a caretaker, Grady, became overwhelmed by “cabin fever” and killed his wife and two young daughters with an ax, then shot himself. Jack assures Ullman that five months of peace is what he is seeking in order to begin a writing project he has planned. Meanwhile, in Boulder, Jack’s wife Wendy and their son Danny discuss the possibility of moving. Danny says that his imaginary friend, “Tony,” is against the move. While Danny brushes his teeth, “Tony” tells him that Jack will get the job and, soon after, Jack calls Wendy and confirms that he has been hired. When Danny insists that “Tony” tell him what is wrong with the hotel, he goes into a trance and sees startling images, among them, two young girls identically dressed and hotel doors from which blood gushes. The visions become so frightening that Danny blacks out and Wendy arranges for a doctor to visit. When the doctor asks Danny what he remembers, he says he was talking to “Tony,” but is otherwise reticent. The doctor prescribes rest and suggests there is a psychological explanation for the incident. Wendy tells her that “Tony” first appeared in Danny’s life after an “accident” in which an inebriated Jack dislocated the boy’s arm. In denial about the significance, Wendy says that good came out of the event, because Jack vowed to quit drinking and has remained alcohol-free for five months. Days later, the family arrives at the Overlook Hotel as staff and guests are leaving. Ullman and staff members give the family a tour of their living quarters and other areas of the labyrinthine building that was built in 1907 on a Native American burial ground. Outside, Jack and Wendy are shown the hotel’s thirteen-foot-high hedge maze and the snowcat, a vehicle necessary to traverse deep snow. While showing the Torrances the grandly decorated Gold Room, Ullman explains that alcoholic beverages are removed during the winter for insurance reasons. While playing in the game room, Danny again sees a vision of the identically dressed girls. Wendy and Danny visit the kitchen and meet head chef, Dick Hallorann, who shows Wendy the stored food in the pantries and walk-in freezer. Wendy is surprised when Dick addresses Danny as “Doc,” because it is a nickname she and Jack sometimes call the boy. As Dick continues the tour, he telepathically asks Danny if he would like some ice cream and, later, when Danny and Dick eat ice cream alone together, Dick reveals that he sensed Danny’s mental powers. Dick explains that he, too, has them and that the abilities are known as “shining.” Danny confides that “Tony” told him not to tell Wendy and Jack about the powers and asks if there is something bad about the hotel. Dick says that the hotel also has a way of shining and that when events happen, they can leave traces like pictures in a book that only those who “shine” can detect. Danny asks about Room 237 and says he thinks Dick is scared of it. Dick tells him he has no need to know about that room, and is adamant that Danny avoid it. A month passes, but during this time Jack is unable to start his novel. However, he proclaims his fondness for the hotel, and tells Wendy he feels as if he has been there before. As Wendy and Danny explore the maze outside, Jack, frustrated about his lack of productivity, bounces tennis balls against the hotel’s inner walls. Days later, while racing his tricycle through the halls, Danny comes to Room 237 and cautiously tries the door handle. The door is locked and an image of the two girls again appears in his mind. Lonely, Wendy visits Jack as he is typing, but, showing anger out of proportion to the situation, Jack tells her to never enter the room while he is working. When the phone lines go down due to snowstorms, Wendy contacts the Forest Service by radio. The ranger suggests she leave the radio on at all times so they can make emergency contact, if necessary. Danny is again racing through the halls on his tricycle when the two girls appear unexpectedly on his path. This time they speak, inviting him to play and anticipating they will be together forever. In his mind, Danny sees images of their bloody and mutilated bodies, and tells “Tony” he is scared. “Tony” reminds him that Dick said the images are harmless, like pictures in a book. One morning, Danny finds Jack in the family’s apartment, sitting in his bathrobe, undressed and unshaven, and staring blankly into space. Jack says he is tired but cannot sleep, and wishes they could stay at the hotel forever. Danny asks if Jack would ever hurt him or Wendy, but Jack reassures Danny that he would never do him harm. A few days later, Danny is playing when Jack’s tennis ball rolls toward him. Danny follows the ball’s path and arrives at Room 237, where the door is now open. In the basement, Wendy is checking the furnaces when she hears Jack screaming. She finds Jack asleep at his desk and when she wakens him, he says he had a nightmare in which he killed her and Danny, and cut them into pieces. Soon after, a traumatized Danny walks into the room, his shirt torn and his neck bruised. Accusing Jack of injuring Danny, she takes the boy from the room, leaving Jack bewildered. Later, Jack enters the empty ballroom, yearning for a drink. At the bar, he sees Lloyd the bartender and orders a bottle of bourbon. He tells Lloyd he always liked him and that he was the best bartender. When Lloyd asks Jack how things are going, Jack expresses resentment that Wendy will not forgive him for injuring Danny. Wendy runs in and tells Jack that Danny told her a “crazy woman” tried to strangle him. Searching for the woman, Jack finds, in Room 237, a young, nude woman, who silently leaves her bath and approaches him. After they embrace, she turns into an elderly hag with gaping sores. Frightened, Jack backs out of the room, but when he returns to the family’s apartment, he says he found nothing and suggests that Danny’s bruises are self-inflicted. Wendy proposes that the family leave, but Jack condemns her for creating Danny’s problem, and not appreciating his need to write or his responsibility to the hotel. In his bedroom, Danny spots the word “Redrum” written on the door in red then sees the vision of the elevator gushing blood. Meanwhile, in Miami, Dick watches Colorado weather reports and is unable to shake his feeling of foreboding. After seeing visions of Room 237 and a terrified Danny, he phones the Forest Service about his concerns for the family. The ranger tries several times to contact the Torrances, but to no avail. On his return to the Gold Room, Jack sees the Overlook’s hallways strewn with balloons and party streamers, and hears music and finds the room filled with revelers in 1920s attire. When a waiter bumps into Jack, spilling a drink on his coat, he offers to help Jack clean up in the men’s room and reveals his name is Grady, the name of the caretaker who killed his family. However, Grady denies he is the man and claims that Jack has always been the caretaker. Grady tells Jack that Danny is trying to bring in someone from outside and that Danny has a “very great talent,” but is “naughty.” In the family’s apartment, Wendy makes plans to leave Jack and drive Danny down the mountain in the snowcat. When Danny begins to call out the word, “Redrum,” repeatedly, she talks to him, but “Tony” answers, saying that Danny cannot wake up. In the hallway, Jack hears the Forest Service’s attempt to contact them and dismantles the radio. Spurred by his concern for Danny, Dick flies to Denver where he borrows a snowcat and drives the winding roads up the mountain. At the Overlook, Wendy, armed with a baseball bat, looks for Jack at his desk and, finding him gone, examines a stack of papers that Jack typed. She discovers that all of them contain, in multiple formats and with spelling and grammatical variations, the words, “All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.” When Jack appears, Wendy warns him to stay away. Although Jack addresses her with brutal language, he maintains that he will not hurt her. Menacingly, he backs her up the staircase until she swings the bat at him and sends him tumbling down the steps. She then drags Jack into a large pantry and locks him inside. Soon after, she discovers that Jack has disabled the snowcat. In the afternoon, Jack is addressed from outside the pantry by the voice of Grady, who chides him for not disciplining Wendy and Danny, and questions his motivation and sincerity. After Jack asks for another chance, the pantry door unlocks, freeing him. In the apartment, Danny repeatedly chants “Redrum,” and takes a knife. With Wendy’s lipstick, he writes the word on a door. As his chant gets louder, Wendy looks in a mirror and sees the word reversed to read “Murder.” Jack breaks the apartment door with an ax, and Wendy and Danny take refuge behind the locked bathroom door. Wendy pushes Danny outside through a window, where he slides down a snow bank to the ground below. However, she cannot fit through the window and, as Jack chops his way through the bathroom door, she takes the knife Danny dropped and slashes Jack’s hand. Jack abandons his pursuit of Wendy when he hears Dick’s Snowcat approaching. When Dick enters, Jack bursts out of the darkness and kills him with the ax. Hiding in the kitchen, Danny lets out a blood-curdling scream and Jack chases the boy. Danny escapes to the hedge maze, but observes that his footprints in the snow will lead Jack to him. After walking backwards several steps, careful to step into his previous tracks, Danny squeezes through a hedge wall. Jack follows Danny’s tracks until they end, but then, cold and exhausted, he collapses. While searching the hallways for Danny, Wendy encounters ghostly images of previous hotel patrons. After she finds Dick’s mutilated corpse, a blood-spattered ghost appears and tells her it is a “great party.” She finds the Colorado room filled with cobwebs and skeletons, and the elevator doors gushing blood. She joins Danny outside and they drive down the mountain in Dick’s snowcat. The next morning, Jack is dead, frozen in the maze, but inside the Overlook there is a photo hanging on a wall. The photo, dated July 1921, shows a large group of people at a party. Jack is among them, front and center, smiling into the camera. 

Production Company: Hawk Films Ltd.  
Production Text: A Stanley Kubrick Film
A Peregrine Film
Distribution Company: Warner Bros. (A Warner Communications Company)
Director: Stanley Kubrick (Dir)
  Douglas Twiddy (Prod mgr)
  Brian Cook (Asst dir)
  Terry Needham (Asst dir)
  Michael Stevenson (Asst dir)
Producer: Stanley Kubrick (Prod)
  Jan Harlan (Exec prod)
  The Producer Circle Company (Prod in assoc with)
  Robert Fryer (The Producer Circle Company)
  Martin Richards (The Producer Circle Company)
  Mary Lea Johnson (The Producer Circle Company)
Writer: Stanley Kubrick (Scr)
  Diane Johnson (Scr)
Photography: John Alcott (Photog)
  Douglas Milsome (2d unit photog)
  MacGillivray Freeman Films (2d unit photog)
  Garrett Brown (Steadicam op)
  MacGillivray Freeman Films (Helicopter photog by)
  Kelvin Pike (Cam op)
  James Devis (Cam op)
  Dan Grimmel (Video op)
  Douglas Milsome (Focus asst)
  Maurice Arnold (Focus asst)
  Peter Robinson (Cam asst)
  Martin Kenzie (Cam asst)
  Danny Shelmerdine (Cam asst)
  Dennis Lewis (Grip)
  Lou Bogue (Gaffer)
  Larry Smith (Gaffer)
  ARRIFLEX Cameras (Filmed with)
Art Direction: Roy Walker (Prod des)
  Les Tomkins (Art dir)
Film Editor: Ray Lovejoy (Film ed)
  Gill Smith (Asst ed)
  Gordon Stainforth (Asst ed)
  Adam Unger (2d asst ed)
  Steve Pickard (2d asst ed)
Set Decoration: Tessa Davies (Set dresser)
  Len Fury (Const mgr)
  Peter Hancock (Prop master)
  Robert Walker (Decor artist)
  John Fenner (Draughtsman)
  Michael Lamont (Draughtsman)
  Michael Boone (Draughtsman)
  Edward Rodrigo (Prop buyer)
  Karen Brookes (Prop buyer)
  Barry Wilson (Drapes)
  Tom Tarry (Master plasterer)
  Jim Kelly (Head rigger)
  Fred Gunning (Head carpenter)
  Del Smith (Head painter)
  Barry Arnold (Prop man)
  Philip McDonald (Prop man)
  Peter Spencer (Prop man)
Costumes: Milena Canonero (Cost des)
  Ken Lawton (Ward supv)
  Ron Beck (Ward supv)
Music: Wendy Carlos & Rachel Elkind ([Electronic] Mus)
  Brian Rust (20's mus adviser)
  John Wadley (20's mus adviser)
Sound: Wyn Ryder (Sd ed)
  Dino Di Campo (Sd ed)
  Jack Knight (Sd ed)
  Ivan Sharrock (Sd rec)
  Richard Daniel (Sd rec)
  Bill Rowe (Dubbing mixer)
  Ray Merrin (Dubbing mixer)
  Ken Weston (Boom op)
  Michael Charman (Boom op)
Special Effects: Chapman Beauvais & National Screen Service (Titles)
Make Up: Tom Smith (Make-up)
  Leonard (Hairstyles)
  Barbara Daly (Make-up artist)
Production Misc: Leon Vitali (Personal asst to the dir)
  Andros Epaminondas (Asst to the prod)
  June Randall (Continuity)
  Jo Gregory (Prod accountant)
  Tad Michel (Hotel consultant)
  James Liggat (Casting)
  Jan Schlubach (Loc research)
  Katharina Kubrick (Loc research)
  Murray Close (Loc research)
  Pat Pennelegion (Prod secy)
  Marlene Butland (Prod secy)
  Margaret Adams (Prod's secy)
  Emilio D'Alessandro (Prod asst)
  Norank of Elstree (Engineering by)
Color Personnel: Eddie Gordon (Col grading)
MPAA Rating: R
Country: Great Britain and United States
Language: English

Music: "Music for strings, percussion and celesta" by Béla Bartók, conducted by Herbert von Karajan, recorded by Deutsche Grammophon; excerpts from "Ewangelia," and "Kanon Paschy" from Utrenja II ; "The Awakening of Jacob," "De Natura Sonoris No. 1," "De Natura Sonoris No. 2," and Polymorphia" by Krzysztof Penderecki; Lontano by György Ligeti Home by Henry Hall and the Gleaneagles Hotel Band ''It's All Forgotten Now sung by Ray Noble and his horchestrea
Songs:
Composer: Béla Bartók
  György Ligeti
  Krzysztof Penderecki
  Herbert Von Karajan
Source Text: Based on the novel The Shining by Stephen King (Garden City, 1977).
Authors: Stephen King

Copyright Claimant Copyright Date Copyright Number
Warner Brothers, Inc. 31/7/1980 dd/mm/yyyy PA77409

PCA NO: 25995
Physical Properties: Sd:
  col:
  Lenses: Filmed with ARRIFLEX Cameras

 
Genre: Drama
Sub-Genre: Psychological
 
Subjects (Major): Authors
  Caretakers
  Family relationships
  Hotels
  Mental illness
 
Subjects (Minor): Alcoholics
  Axes
  Battered children
  Chefs
  Children
  Clairvoyants
  Colorado
  Death and dying
  Elevators
  Furnaces
  Ghosts
  Hallucinations
  Hotel managers
  Mazes
  Multiple murderers
  Murder
  Photographs
  Predictions
  Psychological torment
  Reincarnation
  Rocky Mountains
  Snow storms
  Suicide
  Twins
  Winter
  Wives

Note: The summary and note for this entry were completed with participation from the AFI Academic Network. Summary and note were written by participant Jeremy Carr, Visiting Research Fellow with the Arizona State University Center for Film, Media and Popular Culture.

The film contains excerpts from the 1971 Warner Bros. production, Summer of ‘42 (1971, see entry); a Miami WPLG television program, Newswatch ; a KBTV Channel 9 Denver news report; and a KHOW Denver radio broadcast of the Hal and Charlie Show . The theme song of Warner Bros.’ animated character, “Road Runner,” is also heard briefly in the film. The end credits contain a “special acknowledgement” to the radio and television stations listed above; Timberline Lodge, Mt. Hood National Forest, OR; Continental Airlines; State of Colorado Motion Picture Commission; Harrods of London; American Motor Company; Carl Zeiss of West Germany; National Vendors; Music Hire Group Ltd.; Cherry Leisure (UK) Ltd.; JVC (UK) Ltd. Many sequences in the film are introduced by title cards that mark the time or day within the story. In addition, the statement, “A Peregrine Film,” appears in the end credits.
       A 1 Nov 1976 Publisher’s Weekly news item reported that Stephen King’s forthcoming Doubleday novel, The Shining had been purchased by the Producer’s Group (Producer Circle Company in the onscreen credits). As noted in a 4 Nov 1976 DV article, the novel was acquired in galley form and scheduled to be published 28 Jan 1977. Although a 6 Jun 1977 DV news item reported that Stanley Kubrick would begin directing the film in early 1978 with Jack Nicholson attached, Kubrick had not decided whether he would shoot in England or the United States. A 27 Apr 1997 NYDN article reported that King had written a screenplay based on his book, but Kubrick rejected it, preferring to co-write an adaptation with previous collaborator, Diane Johnson.
       A 14 Jun 1978 Var news item announced that Kubrick would shoot the film for Warner Bros. at EMI’s Elstree Studios, using four of the nine stages. Although the news item added that filming was expected to begin in November, a 28 Dec 1977 HR news item reported that production would start in 1978. According to a 12 May 1980 LAHExam news item, script problems delayed filming for three months. A 23 May 1978 HR news item stated that filming began in late May; however, an 18 Nov 1978 Screen International production chart and a 22 Nov 1978 Var news item reported that principal photography was in its twenty-eighth and twenty-ninth weeks, implying that filming began in early May.
       Although a 7 April 1978 LAT article stated that Kubrick would not release the name of the child chosen to portray “Danny Torrance” until shooting was finished, a 14 Jun 1978 Var new items named Danny Lloyd as the young star. The 7 April 1978 LAT article also referred to moments from King’s novel that were not seen in the completed film, including sequences in which Danny sees blood dripping down the walls and is pursued by topiary hedges that become “malevolently alive.”
       According to a 31 Jan 1979 Var article, a fire occurring the previous week gutted one of the nine stages, including an active set. The damage was estimated at $2,500,000 and expected to add three weeks to the film’s shooting schedule. Despite the delays, a 13 Feb 1979 LAT news item reported that shooting was complete except for three close-ups of Shelley Duvall, and that Kubrick was rebuilding the charred sets for those shots. The article also stated that Nicholson had finished his scenes and returned home. Although Nicholson reported in a 5 Jan 1978 DV news item that he agreed to work for Kubrick for six months, a 12 Nov 1979 LAHExam news item reported that he ultimately spent thirteen months before the cameras. Some modern sources list the end of principal photography as late as Apr 1979, but the 12 Nov 1979 LAHExam news item reported the end as Mar 1979. At the time of the news item, the film was still in post-production and its release was postponed from Christmas 1979 to Easter 1980.
       A 13 Jun 1979 HR news item noted a new bidding procedure undertaken by Warner Bros. that began with The Shining . The procedure required exhibitors to mail a carbon copy of their offer to the studio in Burbank one year in advance, in addition to the originals they sent to the respective Warner Bros. branch offices. The process, according to the article, was designed to lessen the time between the receipt of bids at the branch office and processing of bids at studio headquarters. At the time, Paramount Pictures had a similar process.
       As reported in a 12 May 1980 LAHExam article, Nicholson refused to do any promotion until he saw the completed production. According to Hollywood columnist Marilyn Beck, Warner Bros. would not screen the film for anyone until 21 May, the day Kubrick promised to deliver a print and two days before the film’s New York and Los Angeles openings. The article noted that, “Only a few members of Warners’ top brass have seen [the film] in anything close to a completed form – and they had to fly to London … to accomplish that.”
       Although The Shining was expected to screen out of competition at the Cannes International Film Festival, a 13 May 1980 HR article stated that it would not. The film was also considered to show at the 28 Aug–8 Sep Venice International Film Festival, according to a 20 May 1980 DV news item, but it ultimately did not screen there.
       As reported in a 14 May 1980 DV article, the ad for the film was printed with an R rating, although the film had not yet been officially rated by the Classifications & Ratings Administration. Due to the degree of violence in the film, there were rumors that it would receive an X rating. The article noted that “authoritative sources” claimed that only Kubrick and Francis Ford Coppola had the right of final cut. Ultimately, as reported 19 May 1980 in the same publication, the film received an R rating.
       Following screenings, the DV review commented that The Shining might become Warner Bros.’ “biggest box office disappointment” since their 1977 production, Exorcist II (see entry, Exorcist II: The Heretic ). The review stated that Kubrick had “destroy[ed] all that was so terrifying about Stephen King’s bestseller.” Positively, the review acknowledged Kubrick as a “visual artist,” adding that, “with the help of cameraman John Alcott and Roy Walker’s production design, the atmosphere of the old hotel is properly menacing and glamorous.” A 23 May 1980 HR review questioned the seriousness of Kubrick’s intentions, further pointing to an unsatisfactory dénouement and curious character rationale. A 23 May 1980 LAT review, referring to the film as “A Freudian’s Picnic,” noted that the film had “moments so visually stunning only a Kubrick could pull them off,” but was “too grandiose to be the jolter that horror pictures are expected to be.” Thomas also praised the contributions of Walker and Alcott, and surmised that The Shining was the type of film that “invites interpretations.” A 23 May 1980 NYT review also criticized the film for ambiguousness, noting that the domestic side of the story was “by far the more effective” and that “the supernatural story knows frustratingly little rhyme or reason, even by supernatural standards.” A 30 May 1980 WSJ review dubbed the film as Kubrick’s “sadly disappointing venture into horror,” stating that it was “trying to be so much … [but] ultimately ends up being very little.”
       Despite these pessimistic early reviews, however, a 28 May 1980 NYT article reported that The Shining broke house records in dozens of theaters, opening in only ten theaters, yet grossing $626,052 in its first four days. According to Terry Semel, executive vice president and chief operating officer for Warner Bros., The Shining was the “biggest opening our company has ever had in New York and Los Angeles,” bigger than The Exorcist and Superman (1973, 1978, see entries). The article also pointed out that the final version of the film was not the version that was previewed for the press the week previous; Kubrick, via a telephone call from London, revealed that he deleted a brief epilogue between Shelly Duvall and Barry Nelson, who played the hotel manager, deciding it was “unnecessary” given the “fantastic pitch of excitement which the audience reached during the climax of the film.” By the end of the film’s first week, a 28 May 1980 HR news item reported that The Shining had grossed $1 million.
       In 1981, when Stephen King published Danse Macabre , his non-fiction book about horror fiction, he claimed that The Shining was “fairly treated” in Kubrick’s adaptation. However, as noted in the 27 Apr 1997 NYDN article, King later hinted at his dissatisfaction with the film in publications such as the Jun 1983 Playboy . King wrote a television miniseries adaptation, titled Stephen King’s The Shining , which aired on the NBC network 27 Apr—1 May 1997. The television production was directed by Mick Garris, and starred Steven Weber and Rebecca De Mornay as “Jack and Wendy Torrance.” The mini-series followed the novel more closely than the film, changing the focus of the story from the father’s devolution into madness to a dysfunctional family dealing with the father’s alcoholism; also, the character “Dick Halloran,” is not killed at the end. As in the book, the mini-series retains the animal-shaped topiaries, instead of the hedge maze, and Steven Weber’s “Jack” pursues his family with a croquet mallet rather than an ax. Unlike the Kubrick film, the miniseries also retains the novel’s over-heating boiler. 

Bibliographic Sources:   Date   Page
Daily Variety   4 Nov 1976.   
Daily Variety   6 Jun 1977.   
Daily Variety   22 Jun 1977.   
Daily Variety   5 Jan 1978.   
Daily Variety   14 May 1980.   
Daily Variety   19 May 1980.   
Daily Variety   20 May 1980.   
Hollywood Reporter   28 Dec 1977.   
Hollywood Reporter   23 May 1978.   
Hollywood Reporter   7 Sep 1978.   
Hollywood Reporter   13 Jun 1979.   
Hollywood Reporter   13 May 1980.   
Hollywood Reporter   23 May 1980   p. 2.
Hollywood Reporter   28 May 1980.   
LAHExam   12 Nov 1979.   
LAHExam   12 May 1980.   
Los Angeles Times   7 Apr 1978.   
Los Angeles Times   13 Feb 1979.   
Los Angeles Times   23 May 1980   p. 1.
New York Daily News   27 Apr 1997.   
New York Times   23 May 1980   p. 8.
New York Times   28 May 1980.   
Playboy   Jun 1983.   
Publishers Weekly   1 Nov 1976.   
Screen International   18 Nov 1978.   
Variety   14 Jun 1978.   
Variety   22 Nov 1978.   
Variety   31 Jan 1979.   
Variety   28 May 1980   p. 14.
Wall Street Journal   30 May 1980.   

Display Movie Summary
The American Film Institute is grateful to Sir Paul Getty KBE and the Sir Paul Getty KBE Estate for their dedication to the art of the moving image and their support for the AFI Catalog of Feature Films and without whose support AFI would not have been able to achieve this historical landmark in this epic scholarly endeavor.
 
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