AFI Catalog of Feature Films
Movie Detail
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Dog Day Afternoon
Director: Sidney Lumet (Dir)
Release Date:   1975
Premiere Information:   New York opening: 21 Sep 1975
Production Date:   30 Sep--late Nov 1974 in New York; Los Angeles opening: 8 Oct 1975
Duration (in mins):   129 or 130
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Cast: The Bank Penelope Allen (Sylvia)  
    Sully Boyar (Mulvaney)  
    John Cazale ([Salvatore] Sal [Naturale])  
    Beulah Garrick (Margaret)  
    Carol Kane (Jenny)  
    Sandra Kazan (Deborah)  
    Marcia Jean Kurtz (Miriam)  
    Amy Levitt (Maria)  
    John Marriott (Howard)  
    Estelle Omens (Edna)  
    Al Pacino (Sonny [Wortzik])  
    Gary Springer (Stevie)  
  The Law James Broderick (Sheldon)  
    Charles Durning ([Detective Sgt.] Moretti)  
    Carmine Foresta (Carmine)  
    Lance Henriksen (Murphy)  
    Floyd Levine (Phone cop)  
    Dick Anthony Williams (Limo driver)  
  The Family Dominic Chianese (Father)  
    Marcia Haufrecht (Neighbor)  
    Judith Malina (Mother [Vi])  
    Susan Peretz (Angie)  
    Chris Sarandon (Leon [Shermer])  
  The Street William Bogert (TV anchorman)  
    Ron Cummins (TV reporter)  
    Jay Gerber (Sam)  
    Philip Charles MacKenzie (Doctor)  
    Chu Chu Malave (Maria's boyfriend)  
    Lionel Pina (Pizza boy)  
    Alan Berger (Lout)  
    Fabrizio DiGiacomo (Shawon Wojtowicz)  
    Richard Garrick (Ambulance driver)  
    Lance Henriksen (Murphy)  
    Jennifer Lanzisero (Dawn Wojtowicz)  
    Kenneth McMillan (Commissioner)  
    John A. Meeks (Police officer)  
    Thomas Murphy (Angie's driver)  
    Samantha Rodewald (Child in stroller)  
    David Dozer (Voice)  
    Joe Seneca (Voice)  
    Robert S. Fields (Voice)  
    Benjamin Slack (Voice)  
    Cassandra Danz (Voice)  
    Janet Coleman (Voice)  
    Raymond Serra (Voice)  
    Anthony Crupi (Voice)  
    Frank Aldrich (Voice)  
    Clinton James Allmon (Voice)  
    Allan Eisenman (Voice)  
    Lee Dupree (Voice)  
    Robert Costa (Voice)  

Summary: On an August 1972 afternoon in Brooklyn, New York, three young men, Sonny, Sal and Stevie, enter the First Brooklyn Savings Bank near closing time. Inside, Sal sits at the desk of manager Mr. Mulvaney and pulls out a machine gun from his briefcase. After a panicked Stevie leaves, Sonny takes a rifle from a flower box and warns Mulvaney and the tellers that he will shoot anyone who triggers an alarm. Sonny then closes the window drapes and spray paints over the lenses of the security cameras then orders Mulvaney to open the vault. Cautioning Mulvaney and the others that he knows all of the security measures as he has worked at a bank, Sonny sends a teller, Miriam, with Mulvaney into the vault to fill plastic bags with money. Although she complies, Miriam begins crying and admits there is only a little over a thousand dollars in the vault as the rest of the money had been picked up earlier that day. Dismayed, Sonny instructs head teller, Sylvia, to empty the tills, reminding her that he knows that one slot of each drawer is rigged to set off a silent alarm. While allowing Mulvaney to answer the ringing telephone, Sonny rejects a pile of marked money and when, in mounting agitation, he swears, Sylvia asks him to watch his language. After setting fire to the bank register, Sonny demands the building keys from the elderly guard, Howard, who is paralyzed with fear. Meanwhile, Sal notices a man across the street staring intently at the bank and the robbers realize the smoke from the burning register is visible. When Howard remains too terrified to act, Mulvaney calmly unlocks the door and reassures the business neighbor that a cigarette caused the smoke. Sonny then orders Mulvaney and the tellers into the vault, but one woman insists they will suffocate and Sylvia pleads to use the bathroom. Exasperated, Sonny inspects the restroom where he surprises teller Maria Sandora who has been changing clothes and is completely unaware of the hold-up. While Mulvaney answers another phone call, Sonny herds the tellers into the vault, then is startled when Mulvaney informs him the call is for him. On the phone, Sonny is addressed by Detective Sgt. Moretti who is in the barber shop across the street. As Sonny and Sal watch in disbelief, the bank is surrounded by wailing police cars and a growing crowd of curious onlookers. Sonny hangs up on Moretti and asks Mulvaney why he reported the robbery when no one had been hurt. The phone rings and Sonny barks a threat into the receiver only to discover the call is for Jenny, another teller, from her husband. When Moretti telephones again, Sonny informs him that he and Sal are Vietnam veterans and know how to kill. Despite Sonny’s subsequent assurances to the hostages that they will be fine if they obey, Howard suddenly collapses and Sylvia explains that the older man has severe asthma. Incredulous that a bank would hire an infirm guard, Sonny leaves Howard to the tellers’ ministrations while he and Mulvaney block off the bank’s back entrance with a large piece of furniture. Outside, FBI agent Sheldon arrives and is displeased by the large number of police whom Moretti admits he hoped would scare the robbers into surrendering. Sheldon watches silently as Moretti waves away reporters while, overhead, television crews in helicopters photograph the mob of police and spectators. As Sonny frets about his next step, Moretti telephones and encourages him to let one hostage go as a sign of good will. Deciding to release the ailing Howard, Sonny and Sylvia help the elderly man through the front door, but the guard is terrified when numerous police leap forward with guns drawn, unsure if he is a hostage or criminal. Alarmed, Moretti, bids the anxious policemen to holster their weapons, then, demonstrating that he is unarmed, pleads with Sonny to come out to the street to see the hopelessness of his situation. Reminding Moretti that Sal is inside holding a gun on the remaining hostages, Sonny, carrying a white handkerchief, steps outside and observes that the forces surrounding the bank resemble a militia. When Moretti presses Sonny to surrender, suggesting that he will only be charged with robbery, Sonny angrily tells the detective that he knows that armed robbery is a federal offense. Demanding someone “better” with whom to negotiate, Sonny turns to the crowd and begins yelling “Attica,” referring to the recent New York prison riot and hostage situation brutally squelched by police that resulted in the death of inmates and hostages alike. Excited by the exhibition, the crowd chants along and cheers Sonny, infuriating Moretti. As Sonny returns to the bank, Sylvia, who has remained in the doorway to speak with a reporter on a fire escape nearby, refuses Moretti’s attempt to pull her outside, explaining that she is obliged to return to her fellow tellers. Back in the bank as Sylvia excitedly relates her interview with the reporter, Sonny takes a call from a television reporter. Turning on Mulvaney’s small TV set, Sonny sees himself photographed through the bank’s glass doors. Admitting that he is committing the robbery because he cannot support his wife and two children, Sonny then grows angry with the reporter and swears, prompting the live broadcast to abruptly cut off. Sonny then tells Sal privately that he believes the police will make a deal with them because of the excessive publicity, but Sal disagrees and reminds him that they vowed to make a clean getaway or commit suicide. A little later, Sonny is taken aback when an anonymous caller urges him to kill everyone. After reflecting on their situation, Sonny tells Sal they can demand a helicopter to take them to an airport where they can flee the country, but Sal remains unconvinced. Insisting that holding the hostages gives them bargaining power, Sonny encourages Sal to choose any country in the world to go and Sal suggests Wyoming. Returning outside to present their demands to Moretti, Sonny playfully stirs up the crowd again, but is abruptly tackled by a man who beats him. After the police pull the man away, Moretti tells the stunned Sonny that the man is the boyfriend of one of the hostages. Although shaken, Sonny requests a helicopter and jet plane and also asks to see his wife. Back inside the bank, the air grows stuffy after Moretti orders the air conditioning disabled. Going to the back of the building in an effort to restart the cool air, Sonny sees the figures of numerous police through a small window and, panicked, shoots his rifle at the window, terrifying the tellers. The shot results in mayhem outside and Moretti anxiously calls to Sonny on a bullhorn demanding to know why he fired. Drained and anxious, Sonny goes outside where the eager onlookers have begun mimicking Moretti calling for Sonny. Moretti informs Sonny that he cannot bring a helicopter into the narrow street, but has arranged for a bus or limousine. Sonny asks for pizza and aspirin for the tense hostages, then later pays the delighted delivery boy with hundreds of the marked bills, before flinging more bills to the excited crowd. As the stifling afternoon drags on, the tellers pass the time chatting quietly and Sonny shows one woman how to perform a military rifle drill. When Sylvia smokes a cigarette out of nervous anxiety, Sal expresses his disgust with smoking, claiming that the body is “a temple.” Amazed, Sylvia mocks him for being a “temple” while robbing a bank, but Sal dismisses her as “weak.” Later, a disheveled young man in a hospital robe, Leon Shermer, steps out of a police car and a stunned Moretti telephones Sonny to inform him that his wife has arrived. Overwhelmed by the police and gaping crowds, Leon faints as word spreads through the police ranks that Sonny is a “fag.” After Leon revives in the barber shop, he tells Moretti of his difficult relationship with Sonny, which included a church wedding. Leon reveals that upon learning from a psychiatrist that Leon is a woman in a man’s body, Sonny has been obsessed with providing him the money to get a sex-change operation. Admitting that stress has provoked him to attempt suicide, Leon dismisses Moretti’s intimation that he could be held as an accessory to the robbery, then breaks into tears and refuses to speak to Sonny. Reporters quickly confirm Leon’s story and, in the bank, Sal grows alarmed when a television newsman describes the robbery as conducted by two homosexuals and urges Sonny to correct the error. At dusk, the lights inside the bank are turned off and when Sonny goes outside responding to Moretti’s summons, he finds himself facing Sheldon. The federal agent informs Sonny that he has taken over and will put an end to the circus atmosphere, then insists on going into the bank to verify the condition of the hostages. Inside, Sheldon notes Sal’s grim demeanor and assures the hostages that their freedom is imminent. Upon departing, Sheldon assures Sonny that they will “take care” of Sal, but Sonny furiously counters that he will never sell out his friend. Moments later, Mulvaney unexpectedly collapses and Sylvia reveals that he is a diabetic. An ambulance physician is sent into the bank to tend to him while Sheldon then informs Sonny that Leon will now speak with him on the phone. After an awkward conversation and despite Sonny’s declarations, Leon evades any personal promises, pleading with Sonny to confirm that he had no knowledge of the heist. Afterward, Sonny asks Sheldon to speak to his other wife, Angie, and their two children. When Angie is put through on the phone, however, she proves so distraught that she will not listen to Sonny, who hangs up in frustration. When Sonny suggests that the recovering Mulvaney depart with the doctor, the manager curses him and tells him not to pretend that he is a good person. Disturbed when his mother arrives and beseeches him to surrender, Sonny instead dictates his last will and testament to Sylvia, leaving insurance money for Leon to have his operation. When a limousine arrives, Sonny inspects the vehicle carefully and refuses Sheldon’s appointing another agent as driver, choosing instead the easy-going African American who delivered the car. When Sheldon agrees too readily, however, Sonny surmises correctly that the delivery driver is a police plant and accepts the agent. Gathering the hostages around them for cover, Sonny and Sal shuffle to the car and enter safely and, amid hoots and jeers from the crowd, depart for the airport. Once at the airport on the tarmac, Sheldon points out their jet to Sonny and asks for another hostage release. Sonny tells Sylvia to go, but she has a younger, volatile teller leave instead. At a secret verbal cue from Sheldon, who is standing by the passenger window, the driver secretly pulls a pistol and asks Sal to point his gun upwards so it will not discharge by accident while the others exit the car. As Sal complies, Sheldon reaches into the car and grabs Sonny’s rifle barrel as the driver turns and, firing between two hostages, shoots Sal in the head. The shocked hostages are quickly taken from the car as a stunned Sonny is handcuffed and placed under arrest.  

Production Company: Arts Entertainment Complex Production  
Distribution Company: Warner Bros.  
Director: Sidney Lumet (Dir)
  Burtt Harris (Asst dir)
  Alan Hopkins (2d asst dir)
Producer: Martin Bergman (Prod)
  Martin Elfand (Prod)
  Robert Greenhut (Assoc prod)
Writer: Frank Pierson (Scr)
Photography: Victor J. Kemper (Dir of photog)
  Fred Schuler (Cam op)
  Richard Quinlan (Gaffer)
  James Finnerty (Key grip)
  Muky (Stills)
Art Direction: Charles Bailey (Prod des)
  Doug Higgins (Art dir)
  Stanley Cappiello (Scenic art)
Film Editor: Dede Allen (Film ed)
  Angelo Corrao (Asst ed)
Set Decoration: Robert Drumheller (Set dec)
  Joe Caracciolo (Prop master)
  Carlos Quiles (Chief carpenter)
  Joseph Williams (Const grip)
Costumes: Anna Hill Johnstone (Cost des)
  Cliff Capone (Ward supv)
  Peggy Farrell (Ward supv)
Sound: James Sabat (Sd mixer)
  Richard Vorisek (Re-rec mixer)
  Jack Fitzstephens (Sd ed)
  Richard Cirincione (Sd ed)
  Sanford Rackow (Sd ed)
  Stephen A. Rotter (Sd ed)
Make Up: Reginald Tackley (Makeup artist)
  Philip Leto (Hairdresser)
Production Misc: Don Phillips (Casting)
  Michael Chinich (Casting)
  B. J. Bjorkman (Scr supv)
  Solters & Roskin (Unit pub)
  Martin Danzig (Loc mgr)
  Lois Kramer (Prod coord)
MPAA Rating: R
Country: United States
Language: English

Music:
Songs: "Amoreena," written by Bernie Taupin and Elton John, performed by Elton John.
Composer: Elton John
  Bernie Taupin
Source Text: Based upon the magazine article "The Boys in the Bank" by P. F. Kluge and Thomas Moore in Life (22 Sep 1972).
Authors: P. F. Kluge
  Thomas Moore

Copyright Claimant Copyright Date Copyright Number
Warner Brothers, Inc. 21/9/1975 dd/mm/yyyy LP44990

PCA NO: 24139
Physical Properties: Sd:
  col: Technicolor
  Widescreen/ratio: Panavision

 
Genre: Drama
Sub-Genre: Crime
 
Subjects (Major): Bank robberies
  Homosexuality
  Hostages
  New York City--Brooklyn
  Police
  United States. Federal Bureau of Investigation
 
Subjects (Minor): Airports
  Bank tellers
  Delivery men
  Disease
  Family relationships
  Fear
  Firearms
  Guards
  Impersonation and imposture
  Limousines
  Mothers and sons
  Physicians
  Pizza
  Sex change
  Summer
  Telephone
  Television news and information
  Vaults
  Wives

Note: The following written prologue appears in the opening credits: “What you are about to see is true – It happened in Brooklyn, New York on August 22, 1972.” Although the characters in the film are based on real-life people, their names were changed for the film. At the film’s conclusion, onscreen written postscripts describe the status of some of the characters two years after the events depicted in the picture. Although the characters’ names are used in the postscripts and no association with their real-life counterparts is made, the information corresponds with the situations of the real individuals.
       A 17 Jan 1973 Var article announced that producer Martin Elfand had secured clearances from several people associated with the Brooklyn bank robbery-hostage stand-off, including the surviving robber John Wojtowicz (“Sonny Wortzik”), his immediate family and Ernest Aron (“Leon Shermer”) to proceed with a feature film production based on the event. The article noted that while no director or cast had been set, a script consultant, Randy Wicker, showed actor Al Pacino a videotape of the wedding ceremony between Wojtowicz and Aron and noted the “striking resemblance” between the actor and Wojtowicz. At the time of the production announcement, Wojtowicz had not yet been convicted of the robbery. A 24 Apr 1973 NYT article on Wojtowicz’s sentencing stated that he had received $7,500 for movie rights and had arranged for $2,500 to go to Aron for his sex-change operation. Although it is unclear when Aron had the operation, at the time of the article, he had changed his name to Elizabeth Eden.
       Modern sources suggest the telephone call scene between Sonny and Leon was improvised by Pacino and Chris Sarandon. In a 1990 interview with Frank Pierson for AFI’s publication, American Film , the screenwriter described how in rehearsal, Pacino had concluded that the scene, originally written to have Sonny and Leon meet, talk and part with a kiss, was inappropriate as their discussion focused exclusively on their homosexuality. Pacino suggested that the scene should focus on the couple’s mutual love yet inability to get along which inspired Pierson to do a rewrite, shifting the scene to a phone conversation. Later, Pacino and Sarandon read the rewritten scene and improvised some lines. Pierson tape recorded their reading and later incorporated the additional lines into his final rewrite of the scene.
       As depicted in the film, in Aug 1972, three young men, Wojtowicz, Salvatore Naturile (variously spelled “Natuarale” and “Natuaralle” in newspaper accounts) and Robert Arthur Westenberg entered a branch of the Chase Manhattan Bank (renamed the First Manhattan Savings Bank in the film) in the Flatbush section of Brooklyn just before the bank’s closing. According to a 25 Aug 1972 NYT article on the robbery and hostage ordeal, Westenberg carried the firearms into the bank before fleeing upon seeing a police car in the street. The article states that Westenberg was arrested two days after the events at the bank. The arrival of the police prompted Wojtowicz and Naturile to hold nine bank employees, including an unarmed guard and the bank manager, hostage for the next fourteen hours. Not shown in the film was the fact that an innocuous telephone tip-off by bank manager Robert Barrett (“Mulvaney”) to a colleague at another branch prompted the colleague to contact the police. As shown in the film, a large crowd of Bensonhurst and Flashbush residents gathered and remained around the bank during the ordeal.
       NYT articles from the 23-24 Aug 1972 chronicle details of the robbery, noting that Wojtowicz came out of the bank repeatedly to warn police officers away from the building entrance. An article about the crime, written by P. F. Kluge and Thomas Moore, appeared a month after the robbery in the 22 Sep 1972 issue of Life and contained interviews with Barrett and some tellers. As indicated in the credits, the story was the basis for Pierson’s screenplay for Dog Day Afternoon . The Life article states that Wojtowicz, as shown in the film, allowed the hostages to make and receive telephone calls with their families, and conducted negotiations with the FBI over the phone as well. Teller Shirley Ball (“Sylvia”) is quoted in the article as describing her unusual rapport with the robbers: “If they had been my houseguests…it would have been hilarious.” As depicted in the film, Ball came out of the bank with Wojtowicz to speak to FBI agents, but voluntarily returned stating, “I could have just walked off, but I couldn’t have lived with myself afterwards.” The film accurately depicted the release of the guard and, later, a teller.
       Unlike the film, Wojtowicz refused to speak to his wife, Carmen Bifulco (“Angie”), from whom he was separated at the time of the robbery. Like Leon, Aron was brought to the scene in a hospital robe from King’s County Hospital where he had been taken after a suicide attempt. Aron refused to see Wojtowicz, agreeing only to a brief phone call. The ordeal concluded much as shown in the film when the FBI agreed to Wojtowicz’s demand for jet transport. At Kennedy Airport, the FBI agent driver noted Naturile’s relaxed positioning of his gun and gave a prearranged signal to another agent before turning to shoot Naturile as the other agent simultaneously grabbed Wojtowicz’s rifle through the limousine window. Although John Cazale, who portrayed “Sal,” was thirty-nine at the time of filming, Naturile was eighteen at his death and, as reported in the NYT , had a lengthy police record including a charge for grand larceny. Wojtowicz had no prior criminal record.
       Dog Day Afternoon opened to positive acclaim, with critical praise going to the deft mixture of levity and drama in Pierson’s script, and Pacino’s kinetic performance. In Dec 1975 Wojtowicz, serving time at a federal penitentiary in Lewisburg, PA, wrote a lengthy article describing his response to the film, which he sent to the NYT , but the paper rejected it for publication. Wojtowicz later submitted the same piece to Var , which printed it in part in DV ’s 19 Apr 1976 issue. The article was later reproduced in full in the No. 15 1977 issue of Jump Cut magazine. In the article, Wojtowicz complained that Warner Bros. had violated their financial contract with him, and expressed bitterness at the FBI for their “murder” of Naturile. Wojtowicz also criticized the manner in which the robbery events were portrayed in the film stating that “I estimate the movie to be only 30% true…”, and took great issue with the depiction of his wife, Carmen, as “horrible.” Nevertheless, Wojtowicz praised Lumet’s direction as “fantastic,” and declared that Pacino and Sarandon deserved Academy Awards. Although Wojtowicz states that he has “taken the movie people to court for (their) exploitation and… breach of contract,” news items indicate that legal action was only taken by Mrs. Wojtowicz for herself and her children.
       A 1 Sep 1976 Var item noted that Mrs. Wojtowicz filed suit against Warner Bros., Dell Publishing and Delacorte Press citing invasion of privacy and unauthorized use of her name and portrait in the film and subsequent novelization of Dog Day Afternoon . According to a 14 Jun 1977 DV news item, the appellate division dismissed six counts of Mrs. Wojtowicz’s suit, citing that “neither the names, portraits or pictures of the wife and children were used in the film.” Three of the original twelve counts had been previously dismissed, leaving three counts remaining, which included defamation of character. A 26 Oct 1977 Var article stated that the Authors League of America had filed an “Amicus Curiae” brief on behalf of the filmmakers and publishers against Mrs. Wojtowicz’s attorneys’ efforts to assert “invasion of privacy.” The league was especially concerned that “the established precedents for immunity would be wrecked if unnamed and unidentified parties can claim to have been offended.” The article added that “the litigation, if successful, would enormously expand the liability in story-telling based on actual incidents.” A 22 Feb 1978 Var item noted that the New York State Court of Appeals had supported the action of the lower appellate division in favor of Warner Bros and Delacorte Press.
       Var reported in a 23 Nov 1977 article that Dog Day Afternoon was the first project to be relevant to a New York State statute which went into effect 6 Sep 1977. The law stipulated that “profits gained from a written or dramatic reenactment of the crime of a convicted felon, must be held in reserve for possible judgments in favor of the criminal’s victims.” The article stated that a public notice in a New York newspaper informed hostages from the Chase Manhattan Brooklyn robbery that “some moneys are available from the earnings of the motion picture Dog Day Afternoon to be used to satisfy money judgments obtained by such victims against the convicted perpetrator of this crime.” The article noted that although at the time of the law’s implementation, Dog Day Afternoon was the only venture relevant to the statute, it was anticipated that the law would apply to the so-called “Son of Sam” multiple murder case of David Berkowitz who had been arrested in Aug 1977 and whose story was already being considered for book and film rights. According to a 2 Feb 1981 Var news item, the $50,000 victims’ escrow fund from Dog Day Afternoon proceeds made payments to Mrs. Wojtowicz for child support and alimony and no other claims had been filed. As reported in a 14 Nov 1981 LAT news item, retired bank manager and hostage Robert Barrett, who suffered from diabetes and was confined to a wheelchair, was awarded a claim from the victim’s escrow fund. A 31 Dec 1986 HR article revealed that after paying three people “affected” by the robbery a total of $35,621.60, the Crime Victims Compensation Board (of New York), closed the Wojtowicz account. A judge ordered the board to reopen the account and continue distributing money that it received from Dog Day Afternoon proceeds. The judge stated that the board misread the law and must continue to pay victims for twenty years or until the victims get any money they are entitled to from the account.
       A 1 Oct 1987 NYT obituary for Elizabeth Eden, who died of AIDS-related pneumonia, revealed that Wojtowicz had been released from prison the previous April. According to a 19 Jan 2001 NYT article, a 2000 film by French filmmaker Peirre Huyghe, The Third Memory , inter-cut footage from Dog Day Afternoon with footage from a re-enactment of the robbery on a sound stage featuring Wojtowicz, then in his mid-50s, playing himself with actors portraying the hostages. The article noted that Wojtowicz was living on welfare in Brooklyn. In 2005, filmmaker Walter Stokeman released a documentary about the bank robbery, Based On a True Story . When Wojtowicz refused involvement after his salary demands were refused, Stokeman depended almost exclusively on interviews with former hostages, the ex-Mrs. Wojtowicz, Pierson and Lumet. A 23 Apr 2006 NYDN article noted that Wojtowicz died on 2 Jan 2006 of cancer.
       Frank Pierson received an Academy Award for Original Screenplay for Dog Day Afternoon . The film received nominations for Actor (Pacino), Actor in a Supporting Role (Sarandon), Directing, Film Editing and Best Picture. 

Bibliographic Sources:   Date   Page
American Film   Jun 1990.   
Daily Variety   25 Aug 1975.   
Daily Variety   19 Apr 1976.   
Daily Variety   27 Aug 1976.   
Daily Variety   14 Jun 1977.   
Hollywood Reporter   11 Oct 1974   p. 18.
Hollywood Reporter   22 Nov 1974   p. 8.
Hollywood Reporter   4 Sep 1975   p. 3.
Hollywood Reporter   21 Dec 1986.   
Jump Cut   19 Apr 1976.   
Life   22 Sep 1972 Vol. 17, no. 12.   
Los Angeles Times   14 Nov 1981.   
New York Daily News   23 Apr 2006.   
New York Times   23 Aug 1972   p. 1, 45.
New York Times   24 Aug 1972   p. 1, 37.
New York Times   25 Aug 1972   p. 1, 30.
New York Times   27 Aug 1972.   
New York Times   24 Apr 1973.   
New York Times   22 Sep 1975   p. 13.
New York Times   1 Oct 1987.   
New York Times   19 Jan 2001.   
Variety   17 Jan 1973.   
Variety   27 Aug 1975   p. 15.
Variety   1 Sep 1976.   
Variety   26 Oct 1977.   
Variety   23 Nov 1977   p. 5, 24.
Variety   22 Feb 1978.   
Variety   11 Feb 1981.   

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