AFI Catalog of Feature Films
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Young Frankenstein
Director: Mel Brooks (Dir)
Release Date:   Dec 1974
Premiere Information:   New York opening: 15 Dec 1974; Los Angeles opening: 18 Dec 1974
Production Date:   19 Feb--early May 1974
Duration (in mins):   98, 104 or 107-109
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Display Movie Summary

Cast: The Players Gene Wilder (Dr. [Frederick] Frankenstein)  
    Peter Boyle (The Monster)  
    Marty Feldman (Igor)  
    Madeline Kahn (Elizabeth)  
    Cloris Leachman (Frau Blücher)  
    Teri Garr (Inga)  
    Kenneth Mars (Inspector [Hans Wilhelm Friedrich] Kemp)  
    Richard Haydn (Herr [Gerhardt] Falkstein)  
    Liam Dunn (Mr. Hilltop)  
    Danny Goldman (Medical student)  
    Oscar Beregi (Sadistic jailor)  
    Arthur Malet (Village elder)  
    Richard Roth (Inspector Kemp's aide)  
    Monte Landis (Gravedigger)  
    Rusty Blitz (Gravedigger)  
    Anne Beesley (Little girl [Helga])  
    Gene Hackman (Blindman [Harold])  
    John Madison (Villager)  
    John Dennis (Orderly)  
    Rick Norman (Villager)  
    Rolfe Sedan (Train conductor)  
    Randolph Dobbs (Villager)  
    Terrence Pushman (Villager)  
    Patrick O'Hara (Villager)  
    Norbert Schiller (Emcee at Bucharest Academy of Science)  
    Michael Fox (Helga's father)  
    Lidia Kristen (Helga's mother)  
    Leon Askin (Herr Waldman)  
    Ian Abercrombie (Villager)  
    Albert Paulsen (Villager)  
    Lou Cutell (Frightened villager)  
    Barry Kroeger (Village elder)  
    Mel Brooks (Sound of screeching cat)  

Summary: On a dark and stormy night in Transylvania, on the hundredth anniversary of the birth of Baron Beaufort von Frankenstein and fifteen years after his death, the box containing his will is removed from his casket and read. Not long after, in Baltimore, the Baron’s great-grandson Frederick, a pre-imminent brain surgeon who insists that his surname is “Fronkensteen,” learns that he has inherited Beaufort’s estate. Despite his desire to distance himself from the notorious legacy of his deceased grandfather Victor, who animated stolen corpses, Frederick temporarily takes leave of his fussy fiancée Elizabeth to go to Transylvania. At the train station there, Igor, a hunchback who pronounces his name “Eye-gor” introduces him to Inga, a buxom blonde lab assistant and, at the candlelit Frankenstein castle, Frederick meets its fearsome housekeeper, Frau Blücher, whose very name frightens horses. During the night, the haunting strain of a tune played on a violin lures Frederick to investigate its source, and he discovers a secret passage that leads to Victor’s laboratory. In Victor’s private library off the lab, Frederick finds the violin, still warm from being played, and a book by Victor, entitled How I Did It , that inspires him to recreate Victor’s experiments. The next day at breakfast, when Frederick says he will need a corpse with a very large brain, Inga makes the point that the other organs would also be large. After Igor informs Frederick that a huge man is being hanged that day, the following night, they dig up the corpse. Frederick then sends Igor to a brain depository to steal a brain that formerly belonged to an intelligent and good-hearted man. However, during the theft, Igor accidentally damages that brain and instead takes one that is marked “abnormal.” Unaware of the switch, Frederick surgically fits the stolen brain into the corpse. With Igor and Inga’s help, the corpse is wired to Victor’s equipment and to flying kites being used to harness the electrical power of lightning. During a thunderstorm, Frederick has Igor turn on the machines and hopes that an electrical charge will spark life into his creation, but despite the flashing and buzzing, nothing happens. Frederick is despondent, believing that the experiment failed, until the corpse later comes to life. When the monster, who shows a tendency to violence when frightened, almost strangles Frederick after Igor lights a match, Igor admits that he took the brain of someone named “Abbie Normal.” Meanwhile, at a town meeting, the villagers are concerned about having another Frankenstein scientist in the neighborhood, as some of them still suffer injuries from the monster Victor created. Police Inspector Kemp, despite having lost an arm fighting Victor’s monster, attempts to calm the crowd by offering to talk to Frederick about his intention of repeating his grandfather’s work. Later, when Kemp arrives, Frederick has just become aware of the danger he has created and guiltily conceals the presence of the sedated monster locked up in the laboratory. Kemp then returns to the villagers planning to allay their fears. Afterward, Frederick discovers that Frau Blücher has released the monster and shows Frederick that his creation, like Victor’s monster, can be calmed by playing the haunting violin tune. Revealing that Victor was her "boyfriend," Frau Blücher admits that she played the tune that prompted Frederick to find the laboratory, because she wants his work to be continued. As they talk, the monster stumbles against electrical equipment, causing sparks that panic him and send him floundering out the castle. Some time later, the monster encounters Helga, a little child who does not fear him, then is beguiled by the music of a gramophone at the hut of a blind hermit. Eager for company and mistaking the monster’s moaning sounds for muteness, the hermit shares his meal, oblivious that he ladles hot soup into his guest’s lap and smashes the wine out of the monster’s hand while making a toast. When the blind man offers a cigar, he inadvertently sets the monster’s thumb on fire, causing him to leave, roaring in pain. By playing the violin, Frederick lures the monster to him, while Inga and Igor capture him in a net and inject him with a sedative before returning him to the castle. Believing that love will help the monster, Frederick risks his life to embrace him, then speaks tenderly to him, until the creature weeps in his arms. Frederick then educates the monster and later presents him to the Bucharest Academy of Science. During a demonstration, Frederick shows that the monster is a “cultured, sophisticated man about town” by performing the song, “Puttin’ on the Ritz,” with both wearing top hat and tails. Although the audience applauds enthusiastically, the success is short-lived when the monster becomes agitated by the pop of a stage light that he accidentally bursts. The audience then boos its disapproval and throws food, further panicking the monster, who knocks down Frederick and lunges at a policeman. As the audience flees, the monster is apprehended. Later, while the monster sits forlorn in a dank prison cell bound by several chains, Frederick searches for a way to equalize the imbalance of the his spinal fluid, which, he believes, will make his creation normal. Frederick also finds solace with Inga, who relieves his tension with sex. Immediately afterward he receives a cable from Elizabeth, announcing her arrival seconds later. Meanwhile, at the prison, a sadistic jailor torments the monster with lighted matches until the desperate creature breaks his chains and escapes. Everyone is concerned about the monster being loose, except the practical Elizabeth. After insisting that she and Frederick remain chaste until their wedding night, she is alone preparing for bed, when the monster enters through the window and carries her off to a cave. Lustful, he initiates sex and Elizabeth experiences such pleasure that she falls in love with him and sings, “Ah, sweet mystery of life.” After more sex, she feels abandoned when the monster is lured away abruptly by the sound of a violin. The music, emanating from high up in the castle, is being played by Frederick, amplified by a megaphone and accompanied by Igor on French horn. After the monster struggles up the side of the castle wall toward the music, Frederick instructs Inga and Igor to strap the monster and himself to two separate platforms and hook their brains together with wires. After explaining the importance of having the electrical current constant between them for exactly fifteen minutes, Frederick orders that the procedure commence. During the last two minutes, the rioting villagers led by Kemp break down the castle door using Kemp’s false arm. Despite Inga and Igor’s plea to wait three more seconds, they break the electrical connection and attempt to lynch Frederick. However, the monster, now able to talk, orders them to stop. Then he eloquently explains that people’s hate created his desire to inspire fear, rather than his natural inclination, love. He talks affectionately about Frederick, who considered him beautiful and risked his life to give him a calmer brain. Acknowledging that the situation has changed, Kemp offers his hand in friendship, then invites everyone to his cottage for sponge cake and wine. Some time later, Elizabeth, who is living in happy domesticity with the now civilized monster, eagerly seduces him into laying aside his Wall Street Journal . Frederick and Inga also marry, and on their wedding night Inga discovers that in exchange for part of Frederick’s brain, Frederick received something substantial from the monster. She begins singing, “Ah, Sweet Mystery of Life,” while, on the castle balcony, Igor plays the French horn. 

Production Company: Gruskoff/Venture FIlms  
  Crossbow Productions, Inc.  
  Jouer Limited  
Production Text: A Mel Brooks film
Distribution Company: Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corp.  
Director: Mel Brooks (Dir)
  Marvin Miller (Asst dir)
  Barry Stern (2d asst dir)
  Mike Grillo (2d asst dir)
Producer: Michael Gruskoff (Prod)
Writer: Gene Wilder (Scr story and scr)
  Mel Brooks (Scr story and scr)
Photography: Gerald Hirschfeld (Dir of photog)
  James Plannette (Gaffer)
  Tim Vanik (Cam op)
  Eric Anderson (1st asst cam)
  John F. Ganther (Best boy)
  Doug Bolder (Best boy)
  Charles Record (Key grip)
  John Monte (Stills)
  Panavision Equipment (Filmed with)
Art Direction: Dale Hennesy (Prod des)
Film Editor: John C. Howard (Film ed)
Set Decoration: Bob de Vestel (Set dec)
  Diane Wager (Set dec)
  Jack Marino (Prop master)
  Charles Sertin (Asst prop master)
  Hank Wynands (Const coord)
Costumes: Dick James (Men`s ward)
  Ed Wynigear (Men`s ward)
  Phyllis Garr (Women's ward)
  Carolyn Ewart (Women's ward)
  Dorothy Jeakins (Cost)
Music: John Morris (Mus comp and cond)
  Jonathan Tunick (Orch)
  John Morris (Orch)
  Gerald Vinci (Violin solo by)
Sound: Gene Cantamessa (Prod mixer)
  Richard Portman (Prod rerec)
  Don Hall (Sd ed)
  Stanford C. Allen (Asst ed)
  William D. Gordean (Asst ed)
Special Effects: Anthony Goldschmidt (Title and graphic des)
  Henry Millar Jr. (Spec eff)
  Hal Millar (Spec eff)
Make Up: William Tuttle (Makeup created by)
  Ed Butterworth (Makeup artist)
  Mary Keats (Hairdresser)
Production Misc: Frank Baur (Unit prod mgr)
  Mike Fenton (Casting)
  Jane Feinberg (Casting)
  Ray Quiroz (Scr supv)
  Kenneth Strickfaden (Frankenstein laboratory)
  John Campbell (Unit pub)
  Cinemobile (Loc services)
MPAA Rating: PG
Country: United States
Language: English

Music: "Transylvanian Lullaby" by John Morris.
Songs: "Puttin' On the Ritz," music and lyrics by Irving Berlin; "I Ain't Got Nobody," music by Spencer Williams, Jr. and Dave Peyton, lyrics by Roger Graham; "Ah, Sweet Mystery of Life," music by Victor Herbert, lyrics by Rida Johnson Young; "Battle Hymn of the Republic," music by William Steffe, lyrics by Julia Ward Howe; "Chattanooga Choo Choo," music by Harry Warren, lyrics by Mack Gordon; "Roll, Roll in the Hay," music and lyrics by Mel Brooks.
Composer: Irving Berlin [film ed]
  Mel Brooks
  Mack Gordon
  Roger Graham
  Victor Herbert
  Julia Ward Howe
  Rida Johnson Young
  John Morris
  Dave Peyton
  William Steffe
  Harry Warren
  Spencer Williams Jr.
Source Text: Based on characters created in the novel Frankenstein; or, the Modern Prometheus by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (London, 1818).
Authors: Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley

Copyright Claimant Copyright Date Copyright Number
Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation 15/12/1974 dd/mm/yyyy LP44007

PCA NO: 24037
Physical Properties: Sd: Westrex Recording System
  Lenses/Prints: Prints by De Luxe
  Widescreen/ratio: Panavision

Genre: Comedy
  Science fiction
Subjects (Major): Inheritance
  Transylvania (Romania)
Subjects (Minor): Arrests
  Baltimore (MD)
  Brains (Human)
  Bucharest (Romania)
  French horns
  Grave robbers
  Mad scientists
  Medical students
  Police inspectors
  Romantic rivalry
  Secret passageways
  Train stations
  Village life

Note: Onscreen cast credits for John Madison through Lidia Kristen appear only in the opening credits. The opening cast list ends with “and Madeline Kahn as Elizabeth.” According to studio production notes in the film’s pressbook, the genesis of the film occurred when actor/comedian Gene Wilder, who portrayed "Dr. Frederick Frankenstein" in the film, wrote an outline for a story that he called Young Frankenstein . Several months later, according to the studio production notes, Wilder’s agent, Mike Medavoy, expressed interest in his making a film with fellow clients Peter Boyle and British actor Marty Feldman (who portrayed “The Monster” and “Igor,” respectively). Studio production notes in the AMPAS Library file on the film reported that when Wilder submitted his outlined idea to them, the actors were interested in having Mel Brooks on the project as director, although Brooks previously had directed only scripts he had written.
       In a documentary included as added content on the 1998 DVD release of the film, Wilder and producer Michael Gruskoff stated that Columbia was involved during the writing of the script, but would not agree to Mel Brooks’s budget of two million dollars during negotiations. The screenplay, co-written by Wilder and Brooks, was then presented to Twentieth Century-Fox and an 8 Jun 1974 HR news item announced that studio’s acquisition of the script. In a 14 Apr 1974 LAT article, Wilder stated that the script took about six weeks to write, not including time off for two other projects, one of which was another Brooks-directed film released in 1974, Blazing Saddles (see entry above).
       In their desire to recreate and even, according to the Jul 1974 AmCin article, “satirize” the look of films of the 1920s and 1930s, the filmmakers used many cinematic techniques, lighting styles and transitional devices, such as iris dissolves, that were popular in that era. The film was shot in black-and-white, a rarity by the early 1970s. Director of photography Gerald Hirschfeld, who began his career in the 1940s when black-and-white filmmaking dominated, stated in the AmCin article that he originally thought that the film should begin in black-and-white then segue into color. In the DVD documentary, Hirschfeld recalled that the studio urged Brooks to make the film in color, as they were fearful that European and television markets would not buy a black-and-white move. However, Brooks remained adamant and, in the film’s trailers, which Brooks narrated, he informed the audience that the film was in black-and-white and as a joke added, “No offense.”
       The 14 Apr 1974 LAT article and the LAT review reported that Kenneth Strickfaden, who is given “special thanks” in the opening credits, reassembled the original laboratory equipment he used in the 1931 Frankenstein film from pieces that, according to the AmCin article, he had stored in his garage. In the LAT article, the septuagenarian explained that he was considered a technical consultant for Young Frankenstein , but worked a “full schedule.” The AmCin article added that he reconstructed some items and created new electrical devices for the laboratory in Young Frankenstein .
       According to the AmCin article, for the railroad sequences, a moving background was projected on a screen outside the mock-up trains. Production designer Dale Hennesy created a forest set on the M-G-M backlot that was approximately forty feet deep and one hundred feet in length, and used a dolly track running parallel to it to film the back ground scene for the train ride. According to studio production notes, the principal set, the Frankenstein castle, was erected by Hennesy on stage 5 at 20th Century-Fox. The Apr 1974 LAT article (which stated that stage 4 was used for the set) reported that it was fifteen thousand square feet and rising thirty-five feet high. As noted in the AmCin article, the set contained cobblestone streets, a winding, open spiral staircase, a secret passageway, a bedroom with a rotating panel and the lab with an operating platform that could be raised to an exterior roof surrounded by a stormy sky backdrop. The cost of the set was $350,000, according to the Apr 1974 LAT article and $400,00 according to the production notes.
       Location shooting, according to the production notes, included the University of Southern California, which served for the Baltimore medical sequence, and Santa Monica, CA’s historic Mayfair Music Hall on Santa Monica Boulevard, which served as the Bucharest Hall of Science. Exteriors were filmed on M-G-M’s backlot 2 in Culver City. According to production notes, the railroad station set was used in the 1942 film, Random Harvest . The sequence depicting the villagers storming the castle was shot on a set used in the 1962 production, The Wonderful World of the Brothers Grimm . (see entries above.) The production notes stated that Young Frankenstein marked the last film appearance of these old sets, as they were soon thereafter destroyed and the land sold to commercial developers.
       Young Frankenstein marked Feldman’s first Hollywood feature film and the first major role of Teri Garr, who portrayed the lab assistant, “Inga.” According to an Oct 1999 LAY article, Garr had auditioned with five hundred other women vying for the role of the fiancée, “Elizabeth.” Garr stated that Brooks told her he found her funny, but that he had decided to cast Madeline Kahn in the role and invited Garr to return the next day with a German accent to audition for the role of Inga. According to the DVD documentary, Kahn was originally sought for the part of Inga, but she was more interested in playing Elizabeth. Modern sources add Jeff Maxwell to the cast.
       According to production notes, the monster was intended to be intimidating but not repulsive. Boyle was given a bulging forehead, a zipper in his neck, hemstitching on his left temple and one hundred twenty-five pounds of padding. Platform boots were used to raise his height to an imposing six feet, seven inches. To give the monster a “dead” look, makeup artist William Tuttle used green makeup, according to the AmCin article, but a fiberglass model of Boyle’s head was used in the scene in which the monster is charged with electricity to bring him to life.
       Thunder and lightning effects are used throughout the film, as are violin solos, which according to the HR review, were performed by the violinist Gerald Vinci, to create a foreboding mood. Composer-conductor John Morris created a pastiche score and, as noted in the HR review, adapted “old music to campy ends.” To indicate mood or character traits, people in the film sing a phrase or two from older, well-known songs (“I Ain’t Got Nobody,” “Battle Hymn of the Republic") to comic effect. Highlights in the film occur when Elizabeth, and later Inga, sing “Ah, Sweet Mystery of Life,” to express sexual satisfaction. Inga sings a song fragment written by Brooks when she invites Frankenstein to accompany her in a “roll in the hay.” An homage to the 1941 Harry Warrne and Mack Gordon hit song, “Chattanooga Choo-Choo,” occurs when Frankenstein sticks his head out the train window and asks a young villager, “Pardon me, boy, is this the Transylvania station?,” and the boy replies, “Ja, ja, track twenty-nine” and, as an afterthought asks, “Can I give you a shine?”
       Parallels to older film versions of the Frankenstein story appear throughout, such as Gene Hackman’s blind character accidentally pouring soup in the monster’s lap (in The Bride of Frankenstein , 1935, a similar character manages to get the soup in the bowl) and the little village girl asking the monster what more they can drop in the well besides flower petals (in the 1931 Frankenstein , the monster drowns the village girl, but in this version of the story, he only considers it, although he later inadvertently catapults her through the air from a teeter-totter to her bedroom). Among many other gags is the whinny of a frightened horse every time the name, “Frau Blücher” (Cloris Leachman), is mentioned, and also the affectionate rubbing of elbows by Frankenstein and Elizabeth, who fears mussing her appearance and especially her hair, which has been styled similar to the title character in The Bride of Frankenstein .
       In the 1999 LAT article, Garr recalled that the cast followed the script dutifully, but much of the comic business was improvised. The DVD documentary contains a discussion of one such scene, in which an anxious Frankenstein, who is trying to keep the monster a secret, tries to remain calm while playing darts with “Inspector Kemp” (Kenneth Mars). The actors improvised the scene so that the nervous Frankenstein throws darts wildly, missing the dartboard, but hitting a cat, among other things. From offscreen are heard various sounds of items breaking and the screeching of the wounded cat, given voice by Brooks, according to modern sources. A sequence often played in documentaries on movie comedy and has become iconic of the film is Wilder’s performance in the scene at the Baltimore medical school: Upset that his students insist on bringing up his notorious great-grandfather, he accidentally stabs himself in the leg with a hypodermic needle while emphasizing a point.
       Principal production was completed in fifty-four days, according to the production notes. Among the scenes deleted before the film’s release was a lengthy scene in which the will of Beaufort Frankenstein (voice of John Carradine) is read, in which Leon Askin appears as the executor. Another scene depicts the monster encountering “Jack Spratt,” a highwayman in need of glasses. Both of the sequences were included as added content on the DVD release.
       Title and graphic design artist Anthony Goldschmidt, who also worked on Blazing Saddles , created the design for Young Frankenstein ads. According to a 3 Apr 1975 HR article, Goldschmidt and illustrator John Alvin, came up with a basic design that was used in publicity materials that were “wild-postered” all over Los Angeles before that city’s opening. A 17 Dec 1974 LAHExam reported that Goldschmidt also designed a large, vertical billboard, 82’ X 61’ and 560 square feet, for the Playboy Building on Sunset Strip for the Los Angeles opening. That billboard became one of several points of contention, when, according to the 28 Mar 1975 front page article of HR , as well as a DV news item on the same date, the WGA West filed suit against Twentieth Century-Fox.
       Citing violations of an agreement in connection with the placement and size of writing credits on the film and related items, the WGA objected that the ad on the Playboy Building called the film “A Mel Brooks Film” without mentioning the writer. The WGA noted that the director and producer were listed in both opening and end credits, but that the writer credit lacked reprise recognition, as it appeared only in the opening credits. The guild wanted the writing credit to appear wherever the “directed by” credit appeared, although the studio argued that one appearance only was necessary for writers. The WGA also faulted the studio for making the writer credits appear in a smaller size than Brooks’s credits in the film’s advertisements and pressbook, and complained that none of the studio ads were submitted to the guild for approval, which was a contract violation. The arbiter, Walter Bruington, agreed with the guild and told the studio to comply in the future by submitting ad copy to the guild, and he awarded the guild $10,000, from which Wilder would receive $7,000. The WGA, in the Apr 1975 issue of its newsletter, stated that it hoped the award would put a stop to a developing trend that was potentially “demeaning to all writers.” George Stevenson, who was the attorney for the studio, stated to the court that all violations had been corrected and that revisions had been made even before the completion of the arbitration proceedings.
       An original soundtrack album containing dialogue as well as music from the film was released by ABC Records and GRT Tapes, according to a 29 Jan 1975 HR news item. The movie’s theme also was released as a debut single by a rock-style group called Rhythm Heritage. According to 9 Jun 1975 Box news item, an accessories deal was negotiated with Gemini Rising, Inc., giving the company exclusive marketing for tee-shirts, posters and transfers.
       Wilder and Brooks were nominated for Academy Awards for Best Writing, Screenplay Adapted From Other Material, and Richard Portman and Gene S. Cantamessa were nominated for Best Sound. Leachman and Kahn both were nominated for Golden Globes for Best Motion Picture Actress in a Musical/Comedy and Best Supporting Actress--Motion Picture. The film was nominated for Best Comedy Adapted from Another Medium by the Writers Guild of America.
       An ad for the re-release of Young Frankenstein called the film, “The scariest comedy of all time.” The film was ranked 13th on AFI’s 100 Years…100 Laughs list. In 2003, the United States National Film Preservation Board named Young Frankenstein “culturally, historically or aesthetically significant” and it was selected for preservation for the Library of Congress National Film Registry. For other film versions of Mary Shelley's novel, see the note in the entry above for the 1931 Universal production, Frankenstein , which was directed by James Whale and starred Boris Karloff. On 11 Oct 2007, Frankenstein, The New Mel Brooks Musical , opened on Broadway. The stage musical based on Wilder and Brooks's story, was written by Brooks and Thomas Meehan, with music and lyrics by Brooks. 

Bibliographic Sources:   Date   Page
American Cinematographer   Jul 1974   pp. 802-805, 840-842, 844.
Box Office   23 Dec 1974   p. 4746.
Box Office   9 Jun 1975.   
Cosmopolitan   Mar 1975.   
Cue   23 Dec 1974.   
Daily Variety   12 Mar 1974.   
Daily Variety   10 May 1974.   
Daily Variety   13 Dec 1974.   
Daily Variety   28 Mar 1975.   
Esquire   Apr 1975   p. 54.
Films and Filming   Apr 1975.   
Hollywood Reporter   8 Jun 1973.   
Hollywood Reporter   22 Feb 1974   p. 18.
Hollywood Reporter   3 May 1974   p. 18.
Hollywood Reporter   15 May 1974.   
Hollywood Reporter   13 Dec 1974   p. 3, 21.
Hollywood Reporter   29 Jan 1975.   
Hollywood Reporter   28 Mar 1975   p. 1, 24.
Hollywood Reporter   3 Apr 1975.   
Los Angeles Herald Examiner   19 May 1974   pp. 2-3.
Los Angeles Herald Examiner   17 Dec 1974.   
Los Angeles Herald Examiner   19 Dec 1974.   
Los Angeles Times   14 Apr 1974   Section IV, p. 1, 67.
Los Angeles Times   18 Dec 1974   Section IV, p. 1, 24-25.
Los Angeles Times   7 Nov 1975.   
Los Angeles Times   10 Nov 1975.   
Los Angeles Times   7 Oct 1999.   
Los Angeles Times   8 Oct 1999.   
Motion Picture Herald Product Digest   25 Dec 1974   p. 60.
New York   13 Jan 1975.   
New York Times   16 Dec 1974   p. 48.
New York Times   29 Jun 1975.   
New Yorker   30 Dec 1974   p. 58.
New Yorker   9 Sep 1991.   
Newsweek   23 Dec 1974   p. 79.
Playboy   Dec 1974.   
Saturday Review   2 Nov 1974   pp. 52-53.
Time   30 Dec 1974   p. 2.
Variety   18 Dec 1974   p.13.
Vogue   Mar 1975.   
Wall Street Journal   6 Jan 1975.   

Display Movie Summary
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