AFI Catalog of Feature Films
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Sophie's Choice
Director: Alan J. Pakula (Dir)
Release Date:   10 Dec 1982
Premiere Information:   Los Angeles premiere: 8 Dec 1982; New York and Los Angeles openings: 10 Dec 1982
Production Date:   1 Mar--1 Jun 1982 in Brooklyn, NY; New York City; Bergen County, NJ; and Zagreb, Yugoslavia
Duration (in mins):   151 or 157
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Cast:   Meryl Streep (Sophie [Zawistowska])  
    Kevin Kline (Nathan [Landau])  
    Peter MacNicol (Stingo)  
  Co-Starring: Karlheinz Hackl (SS doctor) In Poland
    Gunther Maria Halmer (Rudolf Hoess) In Poland
    Rita Karin (Yetta [Zimmerman]) In Brooklyn
    Eugene Lipinski (Polish professor) In Brooklyn
    Josh Mostel (Morris Fink) In Brooklyn
    Stephen D. Newman (Larry [Landau]) In Brooklyn
  [and] Katharina Thalbach (Wanda) In Poland
  Featuring: Ulli Fessl (Frau Hoess) In Poland
    Melanie Pianka (Emmi Hoess) In Poland
    Eugeniusz Priwieziencew (Prisoner at shower) In Poland
    John Rothman (Librarian) In Brooklyn
    Greta Turken (Leslie Lapidus) In Brooklyn
  [and] David Wohl (English teacher) In Brooklyn
    Marcell Rosenblatt (Astrid Weinstein) In Brooklyn
    Moishe Rosenfeld (Moishe Rosenblum) In Brooklyn
    Robin Bartlett (Lillian Grossman) In Brooklyn
    Joseph Leon (Dr. Blackstock) In Brooklyn
    Nina Polan (Woman in English class) In Brooklyn
    Alexander Sirotin (Man #1 in English class) In Brooklyn
    Armand Dahan (Man #2 in English class) In Brooklyn
    Joseph Tobin (Reporter) In Brooklyn
    Cortez Nance (Bellboy) In Brooklyn
    Krystyna Karkowska (Prisoner-housekeeper) In Poland
    Neddim Prohic (Jozef) In Poland
    Jennifer Lawn (Sophie's child [Eva]) In Poland
    Adrian Kalitka (Sophie's child [Jan]) In Poland
    Peter Wegenbreth (Hoess' aide) In Poland
    Vida Jerman (Female SS guard) In Poland
  German children: Irena Hampel   In Poland
    Sandra Markota   In Poland
    Hrovoje Sostaric   In Poland
  [and] Marko Zec   In Poland
    Ivo Pajer (Sophie's father [Zbigniew Beganski]) In Poland
    Michaela Karacic (Sophie as a child) In Poland
  and Josef Sommer (The narrator) as

Summary: In 1947, a young Southern man nicknamed “Stingo” chases his dream of becoming a novelist and rents a room in the "Pink Palace" boarding house in Brooklyn, New York. One day, he finds a book of Walt Whitman poetry containing a letter inviting him to dine with his upstairs neighbors, a Jewish pharmaceutical researcher named Nathan Landau, and his Polish émigré girl friend, Sophie Zawitowska. After overhearing the couple loudly making love, Stingo later witnesses Nathan abusing Sophie on the staircase. When Nathan catches Stingo eavesdropping, he mocks his Southern drawl and leaves Sophie, who tearfully excuses his behavior and returns to her room. That evening, Sophie brings Stingo a tray of food, and he notices numbers branded onto her forearm from her time spent in a World War II Nazi concentration camp. As Stingo returns his empty dishes, he watches Nathan enter the house and collapse in Sophie’s loving embrace. The next morning, Nathan and Sophie invite Stingo for an outing to Coney Island. Over breakfast, Nathan is affectionate with Sophie and explains that he nursed his ailing girl friend back to health after her period in captivity. She solemnly withdraws when discussing her late parents, whom she says spoke out against the Nazis. Although Stingo is unable to forget the heated words exchanged between the couple the previous night, he stays at the boarding house and soon becomes their closest friend. In one of her English lessons, Sophie’s teacher notices that she has grown increasingly anemic, and she later passes out in the library. Nathan instantly appears at her side and brings her home, where he puts her to sleep and cooks her dinner. She does not immediately recognize Nathan, but accepts him as her caretaker as he reads aloud poetry by Emily Dickinson. Meanwhile, Stingo courts a wealthy, seemingly sexually-liberated girl named Leslie Lapidus, who is ultimately too nervous to engage in intercourse. Dejected and sexually frustrated, Stingo returns home to Sophie, who reveals that she was once married to one of her professor father’s young disciples. Despite her Catholic upbringing, Sophie was taken to Auschwitz following her father’s murder and her mother’s death from tuberculosis. After being released, she lost her faith in God and attempted to commit suicide in a Swedish refugee camp. As Stingo tries to comfort her, Sophie grows worried that Nathan has not yet returned from work, and is annoyed with Stingo for questioning her lover’s obsession with the persecution of escaped Nazi war criminals. Just then, Nathan walks in and becomes jealously agitated by their presence alone together, but Sophie calms his perilously mounting temper. The next day, Nathan makes amends by offering to read Stingo’s writings while Sophie takes him to the cinema. When they return home, he leads them to the Brooklyn Bridge and uncorks a bottle of champagne, toasting Stingo’s imminent success. One day, Nathan brings gifts for his friends to celebrate a medical breakthrough at work, promising to share the news later that evening. Upon his return, however, he accuses Sophie of committing adultery with one of their acquaintances, unaware that she met the man in question to have a gift made for Nathan. Consumed with rage, Nathan insults Stingo’s novel and taunts Sophie for surviving Auschwitz while millions of Jewish people died. When Sophie and Nathan move out in the middle of the night, Stingo attempts to track her location by speaking with a Polish professor at the nearby university. The man reveals that, contrary to Sophie’s claims, her father was a fervent anti-Semite. As Stingo prepares to return home to the South, Sophie stops by the house and agrees to tell him the truth about her past: Although she deeply loved her father, she transcribed his speeches and soon became aware that he supported the Nazi plan for Jewish extermination. She took a lover in Warsaw, Poland, whose sister led a resistance movement against the Germanization of the Polish people. Afraid to endanger her children, Sophie refused to join them, and her lover was soon killed. Due to their association, however, she was sent to Auschwitz, where her daughter was murdered and her son sent to a children’s camp. With her German language and secretarial skills, Sophie was allowed to personally serve Commandant Rudolf Hoess, and relocated to a private room in his cellar. Another prisoner asked her to seduce Hoess and smuggle a radio in exchange for the possibility of her son’s release. During her initial meeting with Hoess, Sophie explained her father’s beliefs and implored him to recognize the injustice of her imprisonment. The officer refused, citing her Polish heritage, but found himself attracted to Sophie’s “Aryan” appearance. To resist physical temptation, he decided to send her back to the camp while reluctantly agreeing to release her son to be raised as a German. Sophie ultimately failed to steal the radio, and Hoess broke his promise to save her boy, driving her to attempt suicide. Finishing her story, Sophie falls asleep in Stingo’s arms and later awakens to find Nathan sitting on the curb. He moves back into the house, and the three resume their happy friendship until one day, Nathan’s brother, Larry, reveals to Stingo that Nathan is a paranoid schizophrenic and cocaine addict who lied about his biology degree. Charged with keeping watch over Nathan’s ever-changing temperament, Stingo returns home in time to witness Nathan propose marriage to Sophie. As the landlady shares Nathan’s supposed claim of discovering a cure for polio, the boy learns that the couple has disappeared. Sophie immediately returns, and Nathan telephones, again accusing her and Stingo of having an affair. Sure that he will kill them both, they flee to Washington, D.C. Stingo hopes to marry Sophie and raise a family on a farm in Richmond, Virginia, and she half-heartedly agrees to go, provided they do not wed. He insists, but she again refuses, revising her story to reveal her final secret: Upon arriving at Auschwitz, a German officer threatened to kill both her children unless she chose between them, prompting her to sacrifice her daughter. Overcome with emotion, Sophie and Stingo make love, but Sophie leaves him with a note stating that her guilt has driven her back to Nathan. Sometime later, Stingo learns that Nathan and Sophie poisoned themselves. He returns to the boarding house, where their bodies lie intertwined on the bed next to a book of Emily Dickinson poetry. Letting go of his rage and sorrow for the couple, Stingo finally leaves Brooklyn to begin the next stage of his life. 

Production Company: ITC Entertainment (An ACC Company)
  Marble Arch Productions  
Production Text: ITC Entertainment Presents
in an Alan J. Pakula Film
a Keith Barish Production
From ITC Entertainment
Distribution Company: Universal Pictures  
  Associated Film Distribution Corp.  
Director: Alan J. Pakula (Dir)
  William C. Gerrity (Unit prod mgr)
  Alex Hapsas (1st asst dir)
  Joseph Ray (2d asst dir)
  Sergio Mimica (Asst dir, Yugoslavia loc unit)
  Michea Caye (DGA trainee)
Producer: Alan J. Pakula (Prod)
  Keith Barish (Prod)
  William C. Gerrity (Assoc prod)
  Martin Starger (Exec prod)
Writer: Alan J. Pakula (Scr)
Photography: Nestor Almendros (Dir of photog)
  Tom Priestly, Jr. (Cam op)
  Dan Lerner (2d cam op)
  Vinny Gerardo (1st asst cam)
  Bill Gerardo (2d asst cam)
  Josh Weiner (Still photog)
  Thomas J. Prate, Jr. (Key grip)
  Edward Lowry (2d key grip)
  John De Blau (Gaffer)
  Jerry De Blau (Best boy)
  Joe Banks (House elec)
Art Direction: George Jenkins (Prod des)
  John J. Moore (Art dir)
  Russell Christian (Asst art dir)
Film Editor: Evan Lottman (Film ed)
  Trudy Ship (Assoc film ed)
  Gary Karr (1st asst ed)
  Jill Savitt (1st asst ed)
  Elaine Hurwitz (Asst ed)
  Gilberto Costa Nunes (Apprentice ed)
  Marissa de Guzman (Apprentice ed)
  Andrea Justin (Apprentice ed)
  Donah Bassett (Negative cutter)
Set Decoration: Carol Joffe (Set dec)
  Wally Stocklin (Prop master)
  Howard Duff (Asst prop master)
  Hans Swanson (Set dresser)
  Gene Powell (Scenic artist chargeman)
  Richard Shelton (Scenic artist)
  Ron Petagna (Shop craftsman)
  Glen Engels (Const grip)
  Pete Grippaldi (Const grip)
  Ivo Lepes (Const mgr, Yugoslavia loc unit)
  Zeljko Luter (Set dresser, Yugoslavia loc unit)
  Zeljko Karacic (Propman on set, Yugoslavia loc unit)
  Tony Gamiello (Set dresser)
Costumes: Albert Wolsky (Cost des)
  David Griffin (Asst cost des)
  Alba Schipani (Women's ward supv)
  Michael Dennison (Men's ward supv)
  Juraj Skuzin (Ward master, Yugoslavia loc unit)
Music: Marvin Hamlisch (Orig mus)
  Jack Hayes (Orch)
  Norman Hollyn (Mus ed)
  Emily Paine (Asst mus ed)
Sound: Christopher Newman (Prod sd mixer)
  Dennis Maitland II (Boom)
  Arthur Bloom (Rec)
  Anthony John Ciccolini III (Supv sd ed)
  Stan Bochner (Sd ed)
  Jay Dranch (Sd ed)
  Thomas Gulino (Sd ed)
  Robert A. Hein (Sd ed)
  Michael Jacobi (Sd ed)
  Anne Stein (Asst sd ed)
  Stuart Lieberman (Asst sd ed)
  Patrick Mullins (Asst sd ed)
  Bitty O'Sullivan Smith (Asst sd ed)
  Brunilda Torres (Asst sd ed)
  Magdaline Volaitis (Asst sd ed)
  Debra Bard (Apprentice sd ed)
  Marko A. Costanzo (Apprentice sd ed)
  John Murray (Apprentice sd ed)
  Ralph Sepulveda, Jr. (Apprentice sd ed)
  Harriet Fidlow (Looping ed)
  Leslie Troy Gaulin (Asst looping ed)
  Lee Dichter (Re-rec mixer)
  Photo Magnetic Sound Studio, Inc. (Sd by)
Special Effects: Computer Opticals, Inc. (Titles and opticals)
  Raoul Schelbaum for Titra Film New York, Inc. (Subtitles)
Make Up: J. Roy Helland (Miss Streep's hair and makeup by)
  Mike Maggi (Makeup artist)
  Frank Bianco (Hairstylist)
  Halid Redzebasic (Hair and makeup, Yugoslavia loc unit)
Production Misc: Alixe Gordin (Casting)
  Howard P. Alston (Exec in charge of prod)
  Earl F. Wroten, Jr. (Prod exec)
  Clein + Feldman, Inc. (Pub)
  Lillian O. MacNeill (Scr supv)
  Roman Harte (Consultant--Europe)
  Kitty Hart (Tech adv--Europe)
  Christopher Cronyn (Asst prod mgr)
  Celia Costas (Loc mgr)
  Juliette Steyning-Brown (Prod office coord)
  Susan Solt (Coord for Mr. Pakula)
  Dick Dixon (Prod auditor)
  Roberta Rose (Yugoslavia loc auditor)
  Jane Tsighis (Asst prod auditor)
  Marge Leonard (Exec asst to Mr. Pakula)
  Eric Myers (Unit pub)
  Judy Dennis (Asst to the casting exec)
  Navarro-Bertoni (Extra casting)
  Michele Mooberry (Asst prod office coord)
  Tom O'Brien (Transportation capt)
  Tom Reilly (Transportation co-capt)
  Christopher Gerrity (Prod asst)
  Nathalie Plemiannikov (Prod asst)
  Sandy Tait (Prod asst)
  James Potter (Post prod supv)
  John J. Moore (U.S. loc coord, Yugoslavia loc unit)
  Branko Lustig (Prod supv, Yugoslavia loc unit)
  Boris Dimitrovic (Asst prod mgr, Yugoslavia loc unit)
  Dragan Josipovic (Loc mgr, Yugoslavia loc unit)
  Ivica Petricevic (Unit mgr, Yugoslavia loc unit)
  Ljiljana Raic (Asst to Mr. Wolsky, Yugoslavia loc unit)
  Jan Byczycki (Polish and German dial coach, Yugoslavia loc unit)
  Camera Mart--New York (Stage facilities and prod equip)
  Disc Management Services (Payroll & employer of record)
  Jim Barr (Payroll & employer of record, Disc Management Services)
Color Personnel: Technicolor® (Col by)
MPAA Rating: R
Country: Yugoslavia and United States
Language: Polish and English

Music: "Jesu, Joy Of Man's Desiring," by Johann Sebastian Bach, performed by Lorin Hollander, courtesy of Intersound, Inc.; "Leider Ohne Worte, Op. 30, No. 1," by Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, performed by Lorin Hollander, recorded for the film; "Eine Kleine Nachtmusic, K525," by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, performed by Lorin Hollander; "Sleepy Lagoon," by Eric Coates, performed by Lorin Hollander, copyright Chappel & Co., Ltd.; "Symphony No 6 In F Maj, Op. 68--'Pastoral,'" by Ludwig van Beethoven, performed by Lorin Hollander; "Symphony No. 9 In D Min, Op. 125--'Choral,'" performed by Lorin Hollander; "About Foreign Lands And People, Op. 15," by Robert Schumann; "The Water Music: Suite In F Maj," by George Frederic Handel, performed by Lorin Hollander; "Voices Of Spring, Op. 410," by Johann Strauss, performed by Lorin Hollander.
Composer: Johann Sebastian Bach
  Ludwig van Beethoven
  Eric Coates
  George Frederic Handel
  Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy
  Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
  Robert Schumann
  Johann Strauss
Source Text: Based on the novel Sophie's Choice by William Styron (New York, 1979).
Authors: William Styron

Copyright Claimant Copyright Date Copyright Number
ITC Films, Inc 30/3/1983 dd/mm/yyyy PA168505

PCA NO: 26835
Physical Properties: Sd:
  Lenses/Prints: Lenses and Panaflex Camera by Panavision®

Genre: Drama
Sub-Genre: World War II
  Postwar life
Subjects (Major): Auschwitz (Concentration camp)
  Battered women
  World War II
Subjects (Minor): Children
  Death and dying
  Drug addicts
  New York City--Brooklyn
  Postwar life

Note: The film begins and concludes with voice-over narration by Josef Sommer, portraying an elder version of Peter MacNicol’s character, “Stingo.”
       End credits state that location shooting took place in Yugoslavia, “with the Cooperation of Jadran Film, Zagreb.” “Special thanks” are given to: “Nancy Littlefield and the New York City Mayor’s Office for Film, Theatre and Broadcasting. Lt. Jesse Peterman and the New York City Tactical Police Unit. The Flatbush Development Corporation, Brooklyn, New York. Bronx Community College.” A disclaimer notes: “Rudolf Hoess was the commandant at Auschwitz. The story, all other names, all other characters, and all incidents portrayed in this production are fictitious. No identification with actual persons is intended or should be inferred.”
       On 29 May 1979, NYT announced that filmmaker Alan J. Pakula purchased motion picture rights to the newly-published William Styron novel, Sophie’s Choice (1979), after viewing the galley proofs earlier that year. Pakula paid for the property in a joint deal with Florida real estate developer Keith Barish, who was eager to invest in the entertainment business. According to the 24 Jul 1979 NYT, Barish flew to NY to meet Pakula on the set of his film, Starting Over (1979, see entry), after the two were introduced by their mutual agent, Stan Kamen. Although Pakula did not expect to sign with a production company until a script had been completed, negotiations began 28 Jun 1979, when Incorporated Television Company (ITC) Entertainment’s Marble Arch Productions President, Martin Starger, received the book from his employee, Lois Smith. The property was also reportedly circulating at Orion Pictures and Universal Pictures, but Marble Arch owner Lord Lew Grade wished to use his company to produce “more substantial” pictures, and Starger agreed to cover the novel’s costs, which had increased from $600,000 to nearly $750,000 due to its recent best-seller status, and budget the film at $10-$12 million.
       The 1 Jun 1979 HR suggested that Mike Nichols and Milos Forman expressed interest in dividing directorial duties of the NY and European scenes, respectively. However, Marble Arch negotiated a $1 million salary for Pakula to produce and direct, in addition to writing the first draft of the screenplay. At this time, principal photography was scheduled to begin in summer 1980. The 24 Jul 1979 NYT and 10 Sep 1979 HR listed conflicting release dates of fall 1981 and Christmas 1980, with distribution to be handled by Grade’s Associated Film Distribution Corp. (AFD), which was later acquired by Universal Pictures.
       However, production was repeatedly delayed over the next two years due to a prolonged casting process as Pakula completed the script. In early 1980, the 10 Apr DV stated that the budget had been increased to $12-$14 million. A 22 Jul 1981 NYT article claimed that Pakula originally hoped to hire unknown actors for the three lead roles, but conceded the need for at least one established star to generate box-office appeal, and initially considered Norwegian actress Liv Ullmann for “Sophie Zawistowska.” According to an 11 Dec 1982 LAT article, Meryl Streep expressed interest in the role and insisted she be allowed to screen test before Pakula had finished writing the screenplay. As early as 1979, the 12 Oct HR listed her as a possible contender alongside actor Michael York in the role of “Nathan Landau.” Although her name remained in consideration, the 11 Jul 1979 HR indicated that Bobby Deerfield (1977, see entry) co-stars and real-life lovers Marthe Keller and Al Pacino were also rumored to star, while the May 1980 Playgirl named German actress Hanna Schygulla. Sally Field was also interested in the part, but reportedly assumed she did not “[stand] a chance” of being cast. The 22 Jul 1981 NYT stated that the final decision eventually came down to Streep and Slovenian actress Magdaléna Vášáryová. Although Pakula offered the part to Streep in summer 1980, she opted not to commit until the script was completed while she filmed The French Lieutenant’s Woman (1981, see entry) and Pakula directed Rollover (1981, see entry). The 11 Dec 1982 LAT stated that the actress eventually obtained a copy of the completed screenplay from a friend at Yale Drama School, and renewed her interest with Pakula.
       Meanwhile, the NYT article also announced that earlier contenders for the role of Nathan—including Al Pacino, Dustin Hoffman, and Robert De Niro—were rejected in favor of Kevin Kline, whom Pakula had seen as the “Pirate King” in a Broadway performance of The Pirates of Penzance in late Jun 1981. Although Kline had reprised his stage role for the motion picture adaptation of The Pirates of Penzance (see entry), the film was not released until 18 Feb 1983, making Sophie’s Choice his screen debut. For the role of Stingo, Timothy Hutton and Michael O’Keefe were being considered over Pakula’s initial choice, Philip Anglim. Two months later, the 25 Sep 1981 NYT reported that Peter MacNicol was ultimately selected from more than fifty actors who read for the part. A 9 May 1982 NYT article stated that MacNicol “tried—unsuccessfully—to develop the voice of an older and wiser Stingo” for the film’s opening and closing narration, which resulted in the eventual hiring of Josef Sommer.
       The 1983 Theatre Crafts noted that costume designer Albert Wolsky and Streep’s hair and makeup artist J. Roy Helland began working on Sophie’s character design long before rehearsals. To achieve the appropriate style of the time period, dresses were created from the fabrics of re-cut vintage garments. The Jan 1983 Moviegoer indicated that rehearsals continued for three weeks, which allowed the actors to “experiment” while developing their character arcs.
       Production notes in AMPAS library files stated that principal photography began 1 Mar 1982, with the filming of interior boarding house scenes at Camera Mart Studios in New York City. According to the 31 Dec 1982 NYT, exteriors were shot at a Victorian house at 101 Rugby Street in the Flatbush neighborhood of Brooklyn, NY, which was painted bright pink to match its description in the novel. Additional Brooklyn locations included the Brooklyn Bridge, Prospect Park, Prospect Park South, Rockaway Playland, the Loew’s King’s Theatre, and, as indicated in the Feb 1983 issue of American Libraries, the Brooklyn Public Central Library. The 9 May 1982 NYT noted that weather postponed the Rockaway Playland sequence, prompting filmmakers to substitute Sophie and Nathan’s climactic death scene in the schedule.
       A 30 Apr 1982 HR news item reported the shooting of a scene in Bergen County, NJ, which included the Delaware-Oswego Railroad line, seventy local background actors, and multiple vintage automobiles. The 16 May 1982 LAT noted that the cars were provided by Uncle Irv’s Antique Autos in Lodi, NJ, which is not credited onscreen. Once exterior pick-up shots were completed outside the Brooklyn boarding house, the 17 May 1982 DV announced the conclusion of production in NY, with Streep set to travel to Zagreb, Yugoslavia, to film an additional two and a half weeks of flashback scenes. Although a 29 Dec 1981 DV article indicated that political unrest in Poland prevented the film from shooting there, production manager Bill Garrity and art director George Jenkins researched locations in Krakow, Katowice, Warsaw, and Auschwitz for three weeks in Sep 1981. After originally considering duplicating the locations in Czechoslovakia, filmmakers feared the country was located too close to Poland, and continued scouting in Yugoslavia. The 9 May 1982 NYT claimed that Pakula hoped to increase authenticity by hiring an unnamed Auschwitz survivor as a consultant, with the actors actually speaking Polish and German with English subtitles. Various contemporary sources reported that Streep spent months learning Polish, and spoke with her accent both on and off camera throughout filming. Principal photography concluded 1 Jun 1982.
       The 25 Nov 1982 LAT announced that the West Coast premiere was scheduled to take place 8 Dec 1982 at the AMPAS Samuel Goldwyn Theater in Los Angeles, CA. Proceeds for the event matched a donation from the National Endowment for the Arts contributing to the building of the new AFI campus. Sophie’s Choice opened 10 Dec 1982 in select theaters, in order to be eligible for that year’s Academy Award consideration.
       Reviews were generally positive, with many critics owing the film’s success to Streep’s performance, which earned her a Best Actress Academy Award and Golden Globe Award. Sophie’s Choice also received Academy Award nominations for Cinematography, Costume Design, Original Score, and Adapted Screenplay, as well as Golden Globe nominations for Best Motion Picture – Drama, and New Star of the Year – Kevin Kline. AFI ranked the picture #91 on its 2007 list of the 100 Greatest American Films of All Time.
       The 30 Mar 1983 HR stated that composer Carol Connors was hired by ATV Music to write lyrics to the main theme from Marvin Hamlisch’s score, which was to be re-titled, “To Face The World Alone.”
       Although contemporary reviews listed the duration at 157 minutes, the print viewed for this record had a 151-minute run time. 

Bibliographic Sources:   Date   Page
American Libraries   Feb 1983.   
Daily Variety   10 Apr 1980   p. 1, 19.
Daily Variety   29 Dec 1981.   
Daily Variety   30 Mar 1982.   
Daily Variety   17 May 1982.   
Hollywood Reporter   1 Jun 1979.   
Hollywood Reporter   11 Jul 1979.   
Hollywood Reporter   10 Sep 1979.   
Hollywood Reporter   12 Oct 1979.   
Hollywood Reporter   30 Apr 1982.   
Hollywood Reporter   3 Dec 1982   p. 3, 6.
Hollywood Reporter   30 Mar 1983.   
Los Angeles Times   16 May 1982.   
Los Angeles Times   25 Nov 1982   Section V, p. 4.
Los Angeles Times   10 Dec 1982   Section VI, p. 1, 12.
Los Angeles Times   11 Dec 1982   p. 1, 7.
Moviegoer   Jan 1983   pp. 9-11.
New York Times   29 May 1979   Section C, p. 10.
New York Times   24 Jul 1979   Section C, p. 5.
New York Times   22 Jul 1981.   
New York Times   25 Sep 1981.   
New York Times   9 May 1982   Section D, p. 1, 15.
New York Times   10 Dec 1982   Section C, p. 12.
New York Times   31 Dec 1982   Section C, p. 1, 15.
Playgirl   May 1980.   
Theatre Crafts   1983   p. 23, 44.
Variety   8 Dec 1982.   

Display Movie Summary
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