AFI Catalog of Feature Films
Movie Detail
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Jaws
Director: Steven Spielberg (Dir)
Release Date:   Jun 1975
Premiere Information:   New York and Los Angeles openings: 20 Jun 1975
Production Date:   2 May--early Nov 1974 on Martha's Vineyard Island, MA
Duration (in mins):   124
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Cast:   Roy Scheider ([Martin] Brody )  
    Robert Shaw (Quint)  
    Richard Dreyfuss ([Matt] Hooper)  
    Lorraine Gary (Ellen Brody)  
    Murray Hamilton ([Mayor Larry] Vaughn)  
    Carl Gottlieb (Meadows)  
    Jeffrey C. Kramer ([Deputy] Hendricks)  
    Susan Backlinie (Chrissie [Watkins])  
    Jonathan Filley (Cassidy)  
    Ted Grossman (Estuary victim)  
    Chris Rebello (Michael Brody)  
    Jay Mello (Sean Brody)  
    Lee Fierro (Mrs. Kintner)  
    Jeffrey Voorhees (Alex Kintner)  
    Craig Kingsbury (Ben Gardner)  
    Dr. Robert Nevin (Medical examiner)  
    Peter Benchley (Interviewer)  
    Robert Chambers (Charlie)  
    Edward Chalmers Jr. (Denherder)  
    Cyprien P. R. Dube (Posner)  
    Robert Carroll (Polk)  
    Philip G. Murray Jr. (Mr. Taft)  
    Jane Courtney (Mrs. Taft)  
    Peggy Scott (Polly)  
    Donald Poole (Harbor master)  
    Hershel West (Salvatore)  
    Alfred Wilde (Iteisel/Mr. Wiseman)  
    Big Joe LaCreta (Barwood)  
    Chris Anastasio (Out of towner)  
    William Pfluger (Sailboat skipper)  
    Richard P. Hewitt (Walter)  
    Walter Hooper Jr. (Harry)  
    Richard S. Young (Pratt)  
    Henry Carreio (Felix)  
    Francis A. Frank (Boat rental man)  
    Eleanor L. Harvey (Motorboat skipper)  
    William O'Gorman (Man with dynamite)  
    Brendan Gallagher (Man with dynamite)  
    Joseph G. Kraetzer (Local merchant)  
    Alston Goff (Lynwood shop keeper)  
    Edwin C. Carlson (Man with gaff)  
    Philip J. Norton (Mr. Stands)  
    Julie Taylor (Nurse)  
    David Engelbach (Research assistant)  
    Wayne Iacono (Spotter)  
    Gregory S. Dole (Sonar operator)  
    Dorothy Fielding (Girl in music store)  
    Beardsley Graham (Mainlander)  
    Joy Stuart (Woman tourist #1)  
    William Lymon (Ensign)  
    Elizabeth K. Gifford (Island wife)  
    Willis B. Gifford (Man)  
    Paul Louis Goulart (Boy with clarinet)  
    Janice T. Hull (Lady fisherman)  
    Henry E. Scott III (Man with rifle)  
    Jerome S. Tartar (Boat captain)  
    Paul G. Thibodeau (Fisherman in boat)  
    Paul F. Tremblay (Deputy #2)  
    Jean Canha (Fat lady)  
    Steven Potter (Man with dog)  
    Rex Trailer (Scout master)  
    Robert Whelden Jr. (Policeman)  
    Gilbert Brand (Victim)  
    Carla Hogendyk (Artist)  
    Stephanie Hull (Swimming girl)  
    Beverly Montgomery (Topless swimmer)  
    Christopher Sands (Lifeguard)  
    Jonathan Searle (Converted extra)  
    Steven Earle (Converted extra)  

Summary: One summer evening in late June on the New England island of Amity, teenager Chrissie Watkins invites a drunken fellow student, Cassidy, to skinny dip in the ocean. Although enthused, Cassidy passes out a few feet from the shore, while Chrissie strips and dives into the sea only to be brutally attacked from underwater. The next morning, police chief Martin Brody meets Cassidy, who has reported Chrissie missing, on the beach just as Deputy Hendricks discovers the mutilated remains of a female body. Suspecting that Chrissie was a victim of a shark attack, Brody hurries to his office to make out a report and consult with the town physician. Determined to close the beaches when the doctor confirms his fears, Brody sets off to Amity Bay, but is intercepted by Mayor Larry Vaughn, two city council members and the doctor. Vaughn reminds Brody that closing the beaches requires a signed city ordinance and that the Fourth of July weekend is about to begin. When the doctor reluctantly admits that the body may have been mutilated by a motorboat blade and Vaughn insists they do not want to start a pointless panic, Brody grudgingly agrees to keep the beaches open. The next day, an uneasy Brody oversees the crowded beach, accompanied by his wife Ellen and their two young sons, Michael and Sean. Dozens of children and young people thrash about in the surf and a dog repeatedly fetches a stick thrown in the water by his owner. Moments later, however, the dog disappears and a group of people suddenly notice a pool of bloody red foam in the sea. As the swimmers and waders run to the beach in a panic, a mangled raft washes to shore while vacationer Mrs. Kintner searches in vain for her young son, Alex. After Mrs. Kintner posts a three thousand dollar reward to kill the shark that killed Alex, Brody and the Amity city board meets with local businesses, fisherman and townspeople to quell their mounting alarm. When Brody acknowledges that he must close the beaches, Vaughn reassures the dismayed business owners that the closure will last only twenty-four hours. The meeting is interrupted by local professional fisherman and shark hunter, Quint, who vows to capture the shark single-handedly for $10,000, which Vaughn agrees to consider. The following morning, Brody is horrified to find Amity harbor teaming with boats and people from Connecticut, Rhode Island and New Jersey who have responded to Mrs. Kintner’s reward offer. Struggling to control the crowds who bear everything from dynamite to guns to small fishing reels, Brody is relieved when Matt Hooper from the Oceanographic Institute arrives. At police headquarters, Hooper examines Chrissie’s remains and declares that the wounds are from a sizeable shark. That afternoon a group of fishermen triumphantly return to Amity harbor with the carcass of a ten foot shark which they proudly display for reporters and locals. Although Vaughn is delighted by the exhibition, Hooper insists the bite radius of a Tiger shark is too small to be the same shark that killed Chrissie. As Brody remains doubtful, Mrs. Kintner arrives and demands to know why he allowed the beaches to remain open after Chrissie’s death. That evening, Hooper visits the brooding Brody at home and reaffirms that the captured shark is not the one that killed Chrissie, and presses the chief to allow him to cut open the captured dead shark to explore its digestive remains. After Hooper determines that the shark caught by the fishermen has no human remains inside it, Brody realizes that he must close the beaches, but Hooper insists they immediately go in search of the killer shark in his high-tech exploration boat, the Aurora . Despite Brody’s frank admission that he fears the water, Hooper forces the chief to accompany him. With the aid of the Aurora ’s powerful spotlights, Brody and Hooper soon come upon a half-sunken dinghy showing unusual signs of damage and Brody recognizes the boat as belonging to an islander. Donning scuba gear, Hooper goes underwater to inspect the little boat’s hull and pulls an enormous shark tooth embedded in the planking. When the mangled remains of a torso abruptly float by a gapping hole in the boat, the startled Hooper drops the tooth. The next morning, Brody and Hooper met Vaughn on the beach to excitedly report that the shark attacks were made by a Great White. Without the tooth as evidence, however, the mayor remains skeptical and insists the beaches remain open the next day, which is the Fourth of July. The holiday dawns to hordes of vacationers packing the beaches. Hooper abandons a commitment to an eighteen-month research project in order to search for Amity’s Great White shark, while Brody, Hendricks and backup deputies with helicopter support observe the waters. Distressed that no one has actually gotten into the water, Vaughn appeals with a family to do so and soon the surf is teaming with people. When Brody’s son Michael asks permission to take his new sailboat out to sea, Brody pleads with him to go into the nearby estuary. While Vaughn cheerfully gives an interview to a television reporter, swimmers are suddenly terrified to see a large fin cutting across the water. As the panicked crowd returns en masse to the beach, Brody’s assistants reveal the fin to be a hoax perpetrated by two local teenage boys. Meanwhile, a young woman standing between the sea and the pond sees a massive underwater form head into the relatively shallow estuary where Michael and his friends are struggling to raise their sail. Nearby, a man in a dinghy calls advice to the boys just as the underwater creature smashes into his boat. The subsequent swell overturns Michael’s small sailboat and, as the boys thrash about, Michael witnesses the man being bitten in half by the enormous shark and faints. Meanwhile, the young woman’s continued cries alert Brody who races toward the pond as Michael’s friends pull him safely to shore. Later, at the hospital, where Michael is declared fine, a stunned Vaughn wonders if he can be held accountable for keeping the beaches open, but an angry Brody forces him to sign a contract hiring Quint. The next day, Brody and Hooper meet Quint at his pier-side office where Brody officially charters the fisherman’s boat, the Orca . Although Quint chafes about the college educated Hooper joining them, Brody insists that the oceanographer and much of his technical equipment be taken on board. Over the next couple of days, the Orca roams far out to sea in search of the shark. One afternoon Quint’s thick cable fishing line is bitten in two, but otherwise their quarry remains elusive. Soon after, as a grumpy Brody resumes shoveling bloody crum out to sea to lure the shark, the creature breaks the surface of the water, its massive mouth gapping. Stunned by the enormity of the shark, Brody staggers into the cabin and tells Quint that he will need a bigger boat. As Quint and Hooper excitedly watch the shark circle the Orca , the older man declares the creature is at least twenty-five feet long and three tons. While Quint prepares to shoot a cable line attached to a flotation barrel into the shark, Hooper attaches a radio tracking device to the barrel. After striking the shark with the harpoon and cable, the Orca follows the racing barrel, but Quint is taken aback when the shark easily pulls the air-filled keg underwater and disappears. Night falls with no further sign of the shark and the men sit in the tiny cabin drinking and talking. Quint reveals that in World War II, he served on board the U.S.S. Indianapolis which was sunk by a Japanese submarine and nearly eight hundred of its surviving crew was lost to shark attacks while waiting for rescue in the open sea. The men fill the subsequent tense silence with songs, when the shark surfaces in the dark and rams into the hull, damaging the boat’s shaft. Despite Quint firing several rounds at the shark, it remains unaffected, but disappears for the remainder of the night. The next morning, Quint and Hooper struggle to repair the battered rudder and engine housing, when the shark surfaces and Quint shoots another cable and barrel into it, then ties the cables lines to the transom cleats. As the shark, now hooked to two floatation barrels, races further out to sea, Quint pushes the rough running engine of the Orca in pursuit, ignoring Brody’s argument to turn back toward land. Later the shark appears to have vanished, only to surface suddenly and attack the cable lines. Panicked, Brody attempts to radio the Coast Guard, but Quint smashes the radio with a bat. Quint then calmly shoots another line and a third barrel into the shark, but when the shark heads to sea again towing the Orca , Quint is forced to cut the taunt cable lines, fearing that the transom will be pulled off. As the battered and listing Orca begins taking on water, the men watch incredulously as the barrels turn toward them, then submerge and go beneath the boat. Moments later, the shark rams the keel. The ship’s stressed engine bearings begin to smoke, and Quint, masking his concern, pushes the engine as the shark begins pursuing them. Upon reaching the boat, the great shark rises up, biting into the transom. The violence of the creature’s attack finishes the Orca ’s weakened engine. The shark disappears as Brody and Hooper realize that the Orca is sinking by the stern. Handing Brody a lifejacket, Quint asks Hooper about the shark cage and other equipment he has brought on board. When Hooper reveals that he has a large syringe full of strychnine nitrate, Quint declares the syringe will never penetrate the shark’s tough skin. Hooper nevertheless volunteers to go underwater in the cage and attempt to shoot the syringe into the shark’s mouth with the harpoon gun. Despite Brody’s protests, Hooper dons scuba gear and oxygen, and is lowered in the cage into the water. Within moments the shark appears and rams the cage from behind Hooper, then grabs the bars and shakes the cage, causing the terrified Hooper to drop the harpoon gun, unfired. Fleeing the shark’s crazed attack through the mangled cage bars, Hooper swims to the sea bottom. Meanwhile the shark, momentarily trapped between the cage and the side of the Orca , thrashes violently as Quint struggles to crank the winch. The bent ginpole gives way as the shark extricates itself and Quint and Brody are horrified when the battered, empty cage surfaces. The shark reappears at the stern and again lunges at the Orca ’s deck, tilting the boat sharply, causing Quint and Brody to tumble and slide toward the maddened creature. Brody hangs on to the cabin door frame, but Quint, unable to maintain his grip on Brody’s legs, slides directly into the shark’s jaws. When the shark submerges with Quint’s bloodied corpse, Brody casts about for a weapon and spots Hooper’s remaining oxygen tank. When the shark attacks again, Brody manages to wedge the tank into its mouth. Taking Quint’s rifle, Brody climbs out onto the bridge mast, which is now almost parallel with the water, and as the shark comes at him, fires repeatedly until a bullet strikes the oxygen tank, causing it to explode and blow off the creature’s head. As blood and flesh rain down on Brody and the nearly submerged Orca, , the shark’s other half falls slowly through the water. Moments late, Brody is amazed when Hooper surfaces. The men laugh weakly in relief and, after Hooper learns of Quint’s demise, the men use the remaining floatation barrels as support and paddle their way toward land. 

Production Company: Zanuck/Brown Company  
  Universal Pictures (MCA, Inc.)
Distribution Company: Universal Pictures (MCA, Inc.)
Director: Steven Spielberg (Dir)
  Tom Joyner (1st asst dir)
  Barbara Bass (2d asst dir)
  Andy Stone (2d asst dir)
Producer: Richard D. Zanuck (Prod)
  David Brown (Prod)
  William S. Gilmore Jr. (Prod exec)
Writer: Peter Benchley (Scr)
  Carl Gottlieb (Scr)
Photography: Bill Butler (Dir of photog)
  Rexford Metz (Underwater photog)
  Michael Chapman (Cam op)
  Ron Taylor (Live shark footage filmed by)
  Valerie Taylor (Live shark footage filmed by)
  Jim Contner (Cam asst)
  Peter Salim (Cam asst)
  Lewis Goldman (Stillman)
  Guy Polzel (Key grip)
  Bill Tenny (Gaffer)
  Joe Cole (Best boy)
  Tony DeGeorge (2d grip)
  David Fay (Dolly grip)
  Vito Carenzo (Company grip)
  Jake Jarrell (Lamp op)
  Bill Tandrow (Lamp op)
  Tim Evans (Lamp op)
  Harry Jukes (Generator op)
Art Direction: Joseph Alves Jr. (Prod des)
Film Editor: Verna Fields (Film ed)
  William Carruth (Asst film ed)
  Ric Fields (Apprentice film ed)
Set Decoration: John M. Dwyer (Set dec)
  Mike May (Leadman)
  Frank Nifong (Prop master)
  Bill Petrotta (Asst prop master)
Costumes: Bob Ellsworth (Men`s ward)
  Irvin Rose (Men`s ward)
  Louise Clark (Woman's ward)
Music: John Williams (Mus)
Sound: John R. Carter (Sd)
  Robert Hoyt (Sd)
  Bill Griffith (Rec)
  John McDonald (Boom man)
Special Effects: Robert A. Mattey (Spec eff)
  Charlie Spurgeon (Spec eff)
  Richard Helmer (Spec eff)
  Gary Wood (Spec eff)
  Michael Wood (Spec eff)
  Roy Arbogast (Spec eff)
  Tim Baar (Spec eff)
  Stanley Mahony (Spec eff)
  Conrad Kromm (Spec eff)
  Harry Shepherd (Spec eff)
  Universal Title (Titles and optical eff)
Make Up: Cinematique (Cosmetics by)
  Del Armstrong (Makeup)
  Verna Caruso (Hairdresser)
Production Misc: Jim Fargo (Unit prod mgr)
  Charlsie Bryant (Scr supv)
  Shari Rhodes (Loc casting)
  Manfred Zendar (Tech adv)
  Nick Chiarolanzio (Loc auditor)
  Danny Young (Time keeper)
  Mel Bingham (Transportation capt)
  Helen Jackson (Nurse)
  Al Ebner (Pub)
Stand In: Ted Grossman (Stunt coord)
MPAA Rating: PG
Country: United States
Language: English

Music:
Songs:
Source Text: Based on the novel Jaws by Peter Benchley (Garden City, NY, 1974).
Authors: Peter Benchley

Copyright Claimant Copyright Date Copyright Number
Universal City Studios 20/6/1975 dd/mm/yyyy LP44550

PCA NO: 24175
Physical Properties: Sd: Westrex Recording System
  col: Technicolor
  Widescreen/ratio: Panavision

 
Genre: Adventure
  Drama
Sub-Genre: Sea
  Suspense
 
Subjects (Major): Fear
  Fishermen
  Island life
  Oceans
  Police chiefs
  Sharks
 
Subjects (Minor): Beaches
  Boats
  Death and dying
  Dogs
  Family relationships
  Fourth of July
  Harpoons
  Hospitals
  Marine biologists
  Mayors
  Mothers and sons
  Mutilation
  Physicians
  Rifles
  Tourists
  Town meetings

Note: A 4 May 1973 DV news item announced that producers Richard D. Zanuck and David Brown and Universal Studios had acquired Peter Benchley’s first novel, Jaws for $250,000 and 10 per cent of the profits. A 21 Jun 1973 DV item revealed that Zanuck and Brown had signed Steven Spielberg, who had directed an earlier film for the producers, the 1974 Universal release, Sugarland Express (see entry). According to a modern biography on Spielberg, the director, who had worked several years in Universal’s television division and made only one previous feature film, was not the first choice for directing Jaws . John Sturges and Dick Richards were initially considered. The Spielberg biography states that a bidding war for the novel transpired between Universal and Columbia, then Universal and Warner Bros. The novel by Benchly, who makes a cameo appearance in the film as a reporter, was loosely based on a 1964 New York Daily article about Long Island fisherman Frank Mundus, who had harpooned a shark weighing 4,500 pounds. Mundus is mentioned by the biography and elsewhere as the prototype for “Quint.” A 14 Sep 2008 obituary for Mundus, noted that Benchley, who admitted to having spent several weeks fishing with Mundus, nevertheless denied that Mundus was Quint’s role model. Mundus spent years using methods to kill whales and sharks that were later outlawed, but later became a shark conservation activist, lobbying for “catch and release.” The Great White shark that had established Mundus’s career was eventually declared an endangered species. In addition to Mundus, Benchley was also influenced by the 1971 documentary, Blue Water, White Death , a National General release, photographed by Ron Tyler.
       The Spielberg biography states that when Richard Dreyfus originally turned down the role of “Hooper,” Jon Voight, Timothy Bottoms, Jeff Bridges and Joel Grey were all considered. Charlton Heston expressed interest in playing “Brody,” but actors Joe Bologna and Robert Duvall were approached. Duval, reportedly, preferred the role of Quint. The film’s producers initially expressed concern at casting Roy Scheider as the hesitant and anxious Brody, as the actor was typically cast in “tough guy” roles. Lee Marvin turned down the role of Quint and Sterling Hayden was prevented from accepting the role due to income tax difficulties. Benchley made a cameo appearance in the film as the reporter interviewing “Mayor Vaughn.”
       The Spielberg biography states that Howard Sackler refused screen credit for working on the script and contributing a scene, not found in the novel, in which where Quint relates the story of the sinking of the U.S.S. Indianapolis . The biography adds that World War II history buff John Milius and Robert Shaw improvised on Sackler’s scene. Carl Gottlieb, an acquaintance of Spielberg’s, was brought in to polish Benchley’s script and utilized cast input on their characters. Modern sources state that Scheider improvised the film’s most memorable line: “You’re going to need a bigger boat.” Side plots from the novel that were cut from the script were the romance between “Ellen Brody” and Hooper, the dynamics between the island natives and summer tourists and the mayor’s shady political connections.
       Photography for Jaws took place off of Martha’s Vineyard, Massachusetts and was the first feature film set at sea that did not use process photography or film in a tank. The Spielberg biography notes that initially live sharks were to be used. Ron Tyler and his wife Valerie agreed to shoot live shark footage off the coast of Australia, but when a double for Richard Dreyfuss’s character, “Hooper” was nearly killed filming the cage sequence, the use of sharks was halted. A brief amount of the Tylers’ footage made it to the released film in the cage sequence without the double. An unidentified 11 Aug 1974 article on the film’s production, describes three polyurethane mechanized shark models designed for the film. An article in the 2 Sep 1974 issue of Time states that the three twenty-five foot long models, all nicknamed “Bruce,” were created by former Walt Disney special effects chief, Robert Mattey and Jaws art director, Joe Alves. One of the models was to be filmed from the right side, the other from the left and the third for angled shots. The models were operated from an underwater platform powered and manipulated by a hydraulic crane “arm.” The article and the Spielberg biography note that the sharks malfunctioned on several occasions and that the models corroded easily and had to have fresh skin applied weekly due to sun bleaching. The mechanized shark breakdowns and bad weather heavily affected the film’s shooting schedule and ultimate cost, and prompted Spielberg to consider withdrawing in mid-production. According to a 2 Jun 1975 DV article, Jaws , initially slated for a three to four million dollar budget, ended up costing eight million. Modern sources extend the cost to ten million.
       The Spielberg biography notes that many associated with the production of Jaws agree that the completed film was greatly enhanced by Verna Fields’ editing and the ominous score by John Williams. The musical riff that played whenever the shark was present, even if not visible, has since become one of the most iconic pieces of music in cinema history.
       Reviews following the film’s opening in May 1975 were mostly positive, with DV calling it “an artistic and commercial smash… a film of consummate suspense, tension and terror.” HR described Jaws “as gripping and terrifying an adventure story as has ever been put on the screen,” while the NYT labeled it “foolishly entertaining.” A 7 Jul 1975 HR article noted the dissatisfaction of several viewers that Jaws had been awarded a PG rating, rather than R for excessive violence. In the article, then MPAA president Jack Valenti explained the decision was due to the violence being done by nature rather than by man. Producer David Brown is quoted in the article as denying that any pressure was put on the MPA board from Universal officials to ensure Jaws was rated PG. According to a 8 Jul 1975 NYT article, Jaws had receipts of $25.7 million in its first thirteen days of release nationwide. In the article, Universal stated that the revenue was the highest for a movie in so short a time and broke the previous box-office record set by the 1972 Paramount release, The Godfather (see above). The article compared the commercial success of Jaws with that of the 1973 releases The Exorcist and The Sting (see above and below), both films which were released in late Dec 1973, the traditional release period for films with high boxoffice expectations. Jaws ’s success was, according to the article, based on being “pre-sold through the popularity of the novel,” and the combination of suspense and disaster-film qualities that appealed to audiences early in the decade. Articles in both DV and HR on 10 Sep 1975 announced that Jaws had become the most successful motion picture in the U. S. and Canada in the history of the industry, taking over from The Godfather . By May 1977, Jaws hit the $200,000,000 mark based on worldwide receipts. Many film historians consider that Jaws , in addition to the Twentieth Century-Fox May, 1977 release, Star Wars , contributed to an industry precedent for releasing action-adventure films with high box-office potential, at the start of summer holidays.
       Scheider, Lorraine Gary, (“Ellen Brody”), Murray Hamilton (“Mayor Vaughn”), and Jeffery Kramer (“Deputy Hendricks”), reprised their roles in the 1978 Universal release, Jaws 2 directed by Jeannot Szwarc. In 1983, Universal released Jaws 3-D starring Dennis Quaid and Bess Armstrong, directed by Joe Aves. And in 1987, Gary reprised her role as Ellen for the Universal release, Jaws—The Revenge , which was directed by Joseph Sargent.
       Both Verna Fields and John Williams received Academy Awards for editing and musical score, respectively. Jaws also won an Academy Award for Sound and received a nomination for Best Picture. Jaws was ranked 56th on AFI's 2007 100 Years…100 Movies--10th Anniversary Edition list of the greatest American films, moving down from the 48th position it held on AFI's 1997 list. 

Bibliographic Sources:   Date   Page
American Cinematographer   Mar 1975   pp. 274-78.
Box Office   9 Jun 1975   p. 4788.
Daily Variety   4 May 1973   
Daily Variety   21 Jun 1973   
Daily Variety   2 Jun 1975   
Daily Variety   12 Jun 1975   p. 3.
Hollywood Reporter   10 May 1974   p. 20.
Hollywood Reporter   1 Nov 1974   p. 24.
Hollywood Reporter   12 Jun 1975   p. 3.
Hollywood Reporter   2 Jul 1975   
Hollywood Reporter   7 Jul 1975   
Los Angeles Herald Express   3 Jun 1975   
Los Angeles Herald Express   7 Jul 1975.   
Los Angeles Times   20 Jun 1975   Section IV, p. 1.
Los Angeles Times   24 Jul 1975   Section IV, p, 1, 11.
New Republic   26 Jul 1975   p. 20.
New York Times   21 Jun 1975   p. 19.
New York Times Magaine   23 Jun, 1975   p. 69.
New York Times   29 Jun 1975   Section II, p. 15.
New York Times   24 Aug 1975   Section II, p. 1.
New Yorker   7 Jul 1975   p. 78.
Time   2 Sep 1974   
Time   23 Jun 1975   pp, 42-44.
Time   28 Jul 1975   p. 47.
Variety   18 Jun 1975   p. 16.

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