AFI Catalog of Feature Films
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The Exorcist
Alternate Title: William Peter Blatty's The Exorcist
Director: William Friedkin (Dir)
Release Date:   Dec 1973
Premiere Information:   New York and Los Angeles openings: 26 Dec 1973
Production Date:   14 Aug 1972--late Jun 1973 in New York City and Georgetown, Washington, D.C.
Duration (in mins):   121
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Cast:   Ellen Burstyn (Chris MacNeil)  
    Max von Sydow (Father Merrin)  
    Lee J. Cobb (Lt. [William F.] Kinderman)  
    Kitty Winn (Sharon)  
    Jack MacGowran (Burke Dennings)  
    Jason Miller (Father [Damien] Karras)  
    Linda Blair (Regan [MacNeil])  
    Reverend William O'Malley S.J. (Father Dyer)  
    Barton Heyman (Dr. Klein)  
    Pete Masterson (Clinic director)  
    Rudolf Schündler (Karl)  
    Gina Petrushka (Willie)  
    Robert Symonds (Dr. Tanney)  
    Arthur Storch (Psychiatrist)  
    Reverend Thomas Bermingham S.J. (University president)  
    Vasiliki Maliaros (Mother)  
    Titos Vandis (Karras' uncle)  
    John Mahon (Language lab director)  
    Wallace Rooney (Bishop)  
    Ron Faber (Assistant director)  
    Donna Mitchell (Mary Jo Perrin)  
    Roy Cooper (Jesuit dean)  
    Robert Gerringer (Senator)  
    Mercedes McCambridge (Voice of demon Pazuzu)  
    Richard Callinan (Astronaut)  
    Yvonne M. Jones (Nurse)  
    Joanne Dusseau (Senator's wie)  
    Vincent Russell (Derelict)  
    Beatrice Hunter    
    Bernard Eismann    
    Don LaBonte    
    William Peter Blatty    
  Voices: Kitty Malone    
    Michael Cristofer    
    Liam Dunn    
    Philippa Harris    
    Maidie Norman    
    Victor Argo    
    Mason Curry    
    Claudia Linnear    
    Elinore Blair (Nurse)  

Summary: Following a series of strange events at an archeological excavation in Iraq, including the discovery of a Christian amulet and an ominous statue of the demon Pazuzu, aging Jesuit priest Father Merrin accepts that he will soon be called on to perform an exorcism. Meanwhile, movie star Chris MacNeil is on location at Georgetown University, a Jesuit school near Washington, D.C., where she lives in a rented two-story house with her ten-year-old daughter Regan, secretary Sharon, butler Karl and housekeeper Willie. Already fearful that her recent estrangement from Regan’s father might cause her daughter emotional damage, Chris is concerned when Regan claims that “Captain Howdy,” an imaginary person, answers the questions she presents to a Ouija board game. Elsewhere on campus, Father Damien Karras, an Ivy league-educated psychiatrist who counsels clergy, is having a crisis of faith. Each day signs of human suffering confirm his doubts, including an encounter with a derelict beggar and visits to his ailing mother, a Greek immigrant who suffers alone, unable to leave her apartment because of an injury. One night, Regan, who earlier heard her mother spout obscenities about her absent father, climbs into bed with Chris, claiming that her own bed was shaking violently. Unable to sleep, Chris hears growling sounds from the attic and is frightened when her candle is blown out while she investigates. When Chris takes Regan to the hospital for a physical soon after, the young girl is uncharacteristically aggressive and blasphemous, but Dr. Klein assures Chris that Regan is merely suffering from depression caused by her parents’ separation and prescribes Ritalin. Meanwhile on campus, a priest discovers that the chapel’s statue of the Virgin Mary has been defaced with red paint and makeshift breasts and penis. Karras is angst-ridden after his uncle insinuates that Karras’ choice to become a penniless priest rather than a well-paid psychiatrist has forced the family to put his mother in a mental institution. Visiting the facility, Karras is devastated when his mother refuses to speak with him. Late one night during a celebrity cocktail party held at the MacNeil house, Regan descends the stairs in her nightgown and, gesturing toward a guest, announces that he will die then urinates on the floor. Chris puts her scared daughter to bed and assures her that the strange behavior is just bad nerves; however, later that night, Chris, finds a screaming Regan being violently tossed on the bed, moving as if controlled by another force. Days later, Father Dyer comforts his close friend, Karras, who is tortured with guilt after his mother dies. Meanwhile, Regan’s unexplained illness worsens, prompting Chris to take her to the hospital where she screams profanities, spits and fights. Attributing Regan’s personality change to temporal lobe lesions, Klein takes brain scans and consults with specialists. Called to the house on emergency one night, Klein and brain expert Dr. Tanney find Regan being slammed against her bed by an unexplained force while her eyes roll back in her head and she rages in a sub-human voice, “fuck me.” After Regan’s slap sends Klein hurtling across the room, the doctors sedate her and suggest to Chris that Regan’s pathological state has given her increased motor power. When a battery of excruciating tests fails to reveal that anything is physically wrong with Regan, Klein admits that the cause must be psychological. One evening, Chris returns home after work to find the lights blinking on and off and Regan alone in a freezing cold bedroom with the window open. Sharon arrives moments later and explains that she left Regan with family friend and the film’s director Burke Dennings, who has mysteriously disappeared. They soon learn that Burke has been found dead, having apparently broken his neck while falling down the stairs outside Regan’s window. That evening, Regan contorts into a bizarre backbend and races backward down the stairs, spewing blood and horrifying her mother, who now suspects Regan is responsible for Burke’s death. Days later, when a psychiatrist hypnotizes Regan to address the other, apparently beastly person inside her, Regan grows pale and growls, then exhales a noxious breath and grabs the psychiatrist’s genitals. Meanwhile, homicide detective William F. Kinderman, who suspects that the chapel desecration and Burke’s death are linked, questions Karras about witchcraft, a subject about which the psychiatrist has written about. Kinderman explains that Burke’s head was turned completely around, facing backwards, an unlikely position to be caused by the fall. Kinderman suspects that Burke was murdered and that the perpetrator might be a mentally ill priest rebelling against the church, but Karras reminds him that confidentiality precludes him from revealing any information. After Chris adamantly refuses to institutionalize Regan, the doctors recommend a Catholic exorcism to rid Regan of the invading spirit, causing Chris to leave, insulted by the suggestion of witchcraft, although she knows she cannot keep Regan sedated at home forever. Interviewing Chris about Burke’s death days later, Kinderman states that Regan was obviously not powerful enough to push the grown man out of her window, but wants to speak with Regan about whether someone else was in her room that night. Chris is barely able to keep her composure, so certain is she that Regan is probably responsible, but manages to usher Kinderman out. Minutes later, a terrified Chris finds Regan stabbing her genitals with a crucifix and screaming, “let Jesus fuck you.” Regan then slaps Chris across the room, blocks her exit by moving the furniture with sheer will and, in Burke’s voice, states that Regan killed him. Desperate, Chris introduces herself to Karras, in hopes that he might perform an exorcism, but the priest tells her that the church has not had call to use the ritual in many years and must have sufficient proof of the devil’s possession before sanctioning an exorcism. Karras reluctantly visits Regan, who is so wounded with gashes from self-abuse that her feet and hands are now tied to the bed, while the furniture has been padded to prevent further injury. Seeing the priest, Regan introduces herself as the devil in the beast’s voice and uses the voice of the derelict beggar to intrigue him further. When Regan insinuates that Karras’ mother is among the inhabitants of Regan’s body, Karras asks for her maiden name, prompting Regan to vomit on him. Although doubtful of the possession, Karras cannot explain Regan’s knowledge of his mother’s death nor her ability to speak Latin, French and an indiscernible language. After Regan writhes as if burned when Karras sprinkles her with holy water, he informs Chris that the water was actually from the tap and that he is unable to support a case for exorcism, prompting Chris to admit that Regan pushed Burke to his death. Karras then listens to tape recordings of Regan’s voice played backwards, which reveal different voices calling for Regan’s death. Finally, after Sharon shows him raised welts on Regan’s body that spell out “Help Me,” Karras presents the case to the president of the university, who summons Merrin to perform the exorcism. The night he arrives at the house, Merrin warns Karras, who is acting as his assistant, to avoid conversing with the devil, who will lie to them to avoid the confrontation. When Karras tries to explain the case’s background, Merrin silences the priest, stating that they deal only with the present. As they enter the room calling out Regan’s full Christian name, the priests can see their breath in the frigid air. Merrin sprinkles holy water and recites the Lord’s prayer while Regan, now grotesquely deformed by the beast within her, screams profanities at the men and hisses at them with a long serpent tongue. Although Merrin proceeds undeterred, Karras is shocked speechless but soon joins Merrin in chanting vehemently for the devil to be cast out of Regan’s body. The room shakes and the walls crack, while Regan accuses Karras of killing his own mother, turns her head completely around and busts her restraints. As she levitates, the priests chant in unison, yelling, “the power of Christ compels you,” which quells the creature. While taking a break, Karras asks Merrin why the devil would inhabit such an innocent girl, and Merrin replies that he wants to make us believe that humans are merely ugly, worthless animals whom God could not love. Physically exhausted by the events, Merrin secretly takes nitroglycerine pills to stave off a heart attack and returns to the room to find Karras falling victim to the devil’s lies and sends Karras away. Minutes later, when Chris asks him if Regan is going to die, Karras regains his strength and returns to the room, but finds Merrin unconscious and Regan freed from her restraints. Unable to revive the priest, Karras chokes Regan, raging for the devil to take him instead of the girl. When Regan rips the medallion from Karras’ neck, the devil enters Karras’ body, leaving Regan to collapse on the floor, whimpering. Karras drives the demon out of his own body just before hurtling himself out the window. The detective, who has just arrived, rushes to the room to find Merrin dead and Karras at the bottom of the stairs. Hearing her daughter’s voice, Chris rushes to aid Regan, while at the foot of the stairs, Dyer asks the dying Karras to confess his sins so that he might enter heaven. Days later, Dyer arrives at the house just as Chris and Regan are about to move out. Regan, who remembers nothing of the possession, sees the priest’s collar and kisses him. When Chris then attempts to give him Karras’ medallion, Dyer hands it back as a memory of their faith. As the MacNeils drive away, Kinderman, who will not press charges against Regan, once again tries to befriend a priest, this time Dyer, to get to the bottom of the strange events. 

Production Company: Hoya Productions, Inc.  
Production Text: A William Friedkin Film
Distribution Company: Warner Bros., Inc. (Warner Communications, Inc.)
Director: William Friedkin (Dir)
  Terence A. Donnelly (1st asst dir)
  Alan Green (2d asst dir)
Producer: William Peter Blatty (Prod)
  Noel Marshall (Exec prod)
  David Salven (Assoc prod)
Writer: William Peter Blatty (Wrt for the screen by)
Photography: Owen Roizman (Dir of photog)
  Billy Williams (Dir of photog, Iraq seq)
  Dick Quinlan (Gaffer)
  Eddie Quinn (Key grip)
  Josh Weiner (Still photog)
Art Direction: Bill Malley (Prod des)
  John Robert Lloyd (Art dir)
  Charles Bailey (Asst art dir)
Film Editor: Jordan Leondopoulos (Supv film ed)
  Bud Smith (Film ed, Iraq seq)
  Evan Lottman (Film ed)
  Norman Gay (Film ed)
  Ross Levy (Asst film ed, Iraq seq)
  Michal Goldman (Asst film ed)
  Craig McKay (Asst film ed)
  Jonathan Pontell (Asst film ed)
Set Decoration: Jerry Wunderlich (Set dec)
  Joe Caracciolo (Prop master)
  Eddie Garzero (Master scenic artist)
Costumes: Joe Fretwell (Cost des)
  Florence Foy (Ladies' ward)
  Bill Beattie (Men's ward)
  Aldo Cipullo for Cartier, New York (Jewelry des)
  Revillon (Furs)
Music: Jack Nitzsche (Addl mus comp)
  Gene Marks (Mus ed)
Sound: Chris Newman (Sd)
  Jean-Louis Ducarme (Sd, Iraq seq)
  Buzz Knudson (Dubbing mixer)
  Fred Brown (Sd eff ed)
  Ross Taylor (Sd eff ed)
  Ron Nagle (Spec sd eff)
  Doc Siegel (Spec sd eff)
  Gonzalo Gavira (Spec sd eff)
  Bob Fine (Spec sd eff)
  Hal Landaker (Sd consultant)
Special Effects: Marcel Vercoutere (Spec eff)
  Marv Ystrom (Opt eff)
  Dan Perri (Title des)
Make Up: Dick Smith (Makeup artist)
  Bill Farley (Hairstylist)
Production Misc: William Kaplan (Prod mgr, Iraq seq)
  Nick Sgarro (Scr supv)
  Albert Shapiro (Admin asst)
  Nessa Hyams (Casting)
  Juliet Taylor (Casting)
  Louis DiGiamo (Casting)
  Anne Mooney (Prod office coord)
  Reverend John Nicola S.J. (Tech adv)
  Reverend Thomas Bermingham S.J. (Tech adv)
  Reverend William O'Malley S.J. (Tech adv)
  Norman E. Chase M.D. Professor of Radiology. New York University Medical Center (Tech adv)
  Herbert E. Walker M.D. (Tech adv)
  Arthur I. Snyder M.D. (Tech adv)
  Howard Newman (Pub)
Stand In: Eileen Dietz (Stunts)
  Ann Miles (Stunts)
  Chuck Waters (Stunts)
Color Personnel: Robert M. McMillian (Col consultant)
MPAA Rating: R
Country: United States
Language: English

Music: Kanon for Orchestra and Tape by Krzysztof Penderecki, courtesy of Angel Records; Cello Concerto by Krzysztof Penderecki, courtesy of Angel Records; String Quartet (1960) by Krzysztof Penderecki, courtesy of Candide/Vox Productions, Inc.; Polymorphia by Krzysztof Penderecki, performed by the Orchestra of the Cracow Philharmonia, conducted by Henryk Czyz, courtesy of Philips Records; “The Devils of Loudon” by Krzysztof Penderecki, performed by the Hamburg State Opera, conducted by Marek Janowski, courtesy of Philips Records; “Fantasia for Strings” by Hans Werner Henze, courtesy of Deutsche Grammophon; “(Tutti) Threnody 1: Night of the Electric Insects” by George Crumb, courtesy of Composers Recordings, Inc.; “Fliessend, Äusserst Zart from Five Pieces for Orchestra, op. 10” by Anton Webern, courtesy of Angel Records; “From the Wind Harp” by Beginnings, courtesy of United Artists Records; “Tubular Bells” by Mike Oldfield, courtesy of Virgin Records; “Study No. 1/Study No. 2” by David Borden.
Songs:
Composer: Beginnings
  David Borden
  George Crumb
  Hans Werner Henze
  Mike Oldfield
  Krzysztof Penderecki
  Anton Webern
Source Text: Based on the novel The Exorcist by William Peter Blatty (New York, 1971).
Authors: William Peter Blatty

Copyright Claimant Copyright Date Copyright Number
Warner Bros., Inc. and Hoya Productions, Inc. 26/12/1973 dd/mm/yyyy LP42969

Physical Properties: Sd:
  col: Metrocolor
  Lenses/Prints: Photog equip by Panavision

 
Genre: Horror
Sub-Genre: Religious
 
Subjects (Major): The Devil
  Exorcism
  Mothers and daughters
  Personality change
  Priests
  Spirit possession
 
Subjects (Minor): Actors and actresses
  Archaeologists
  Beggars
  Death and dying
  Faith
  Housekeepers
  Houses
  Jesuits
  Language and languages
  Mothers and sons
  Ouija boards
  Physicians
  Prayer
  Psychiatrists
  Sanitariums
  Secretaries
  Statues
  Swearing
  Attics

Note: The opening title card reads William Peter Blatty's The Exorcist . Blatty is also credited on a later title card, which reads: "Written for the screen and produced by William Peter Blatty based on his novel." The viewed print contained a credit for Mercedes McCambridge, who was the voice of the demon “Pazuzu;” however, according to a 2 Jan 1974 Var article, the actress was not credited onscreen at the time of the original release. A 30 Jan 1974 Var article noted that by late Jan 1974, after McCambridge complained to director William Friedkin, trade ads contained her credit. Throughout the film, subliminal stills, including some depicting the devil and characters’ faces, are briefly seen.
       Although The Exorcist was a book of fiction, author Blatty based his international best seller on an actual exorcism of a fourteen-year-old boy that took place in Silver Spring, MD in 1949. According to various sources, Blatty learned of the exorcism while attending nearby Georgetown University, where the film adaptation would later be shot. The LAT review noted that the character of “Father Merrin” was loosely based on Roman Catholic priest Teilhard de Chardin, a theologian who possibly performed an exorcism in Africa. According to historical sources, the Catholic Church reported only a handful of exorcisms in the twentieth century, one of which was the Silver Spring case.
       The viewed print was the 2000 DVD release of the film, labeled “the director’s cut” that included several scenes not in the original theatrical release, such as the opening shots of the house exterior and the statue of the Virgin Mary. In his interview at a 2006 AMPAS screening, Friedkin noted that the “spider walk,” in which “Regan” walks down the stairs in a backbend, was not in the original release because wires holding the stunt contortionist were visible, but were removed digitally for the DVD. The director added that the language laboratory scene, the coffee scene between “Chris MacNeil” and “Lt. Kinderman” and the return of the medal in the final scene of film were added for the DVD release.
       According to the Box review, Shirley MacLaine was originally considered for the role of Chris. The film was shot on location in New York City; Mossule, Iraq and various locations throughout Washington, D.C., including Georgetown University. In his interview at a 2006 AMPAS screening, Friedkin noted that because America did not have diplomatic relations with Iraq, he dealt directly with the ruling Baath Party, who agreed to the production on the condition that he hire a large number of Iraqi crew members and teach them how to create makeup blood.
       The film was plagued with problems that caused delays and raised the budget. In a 5 Nov 1973 HR article, Friedkin blamed part of the budget problems on the continuous breakdown of a $50,000 air conditioning unit required to cool Regan’s room to sub-zero temperatures for some scenes in which the actors’ breath needed to appear chilled. In his interview at a 2006 AMPAS screening, Friedkin noted that when camera lights heated the room, shooting would be discontinued until the air returned to below freezing.
       Additional problems, recounted by Friedkin in a 18 Nov 1973 LAT article resulted because both Ellen Burstyn and Max von Sydow were out for weeks, Jason Miller’s young son was critically injured during filming and shooting in Iraq was so hot that the some crew members grew ill and had to be replaced. In his interview at the 2006 AMPAS screening, Friedkin said that the two-story house set burned to the ground, causing a three-week delay as well.
       The film’s sound was notable for its bizarre sound effects and, in some instances, sequences were made more eerie by a complete lack of sound. According to a 28 Feb 1974 Rolling Stone article, the sound designers used a variety of recording techniques and realistic, as opposed to electronic, sounds. To create sound effects ranging from scratching in the house to the devilish noises, the sound effects crew recorded beagle dogs, pigs going to slaughter, a woman convulsing and a trapped bee. In one instance, a variable speed oscillator was used to “tune” the buzzing of the bee to various pitches to create a chord cluster spanning four octaves.
       The 24 Dec 1973 DV review noted that although composer Lalo Schifrin was originally chosen to score the picture, Friedkin rejected his early efforts in favor of existing compositions. Mike Oldfield’s “Tubular Bells,” from his debut album by the same title, became an international hit after the film’s release and has become synonymous with the film’s haunting mood. Among the many iconic images from the film are Regan’s grotesquely formed head spinning around, the bed’s violent levitations and the key art image of Father Merrin approaching the MacNeil house. The silhouette of the priest, wearing his black clerical suit and hat and carrying a briefcase, was illuminated by light being cast down from Regan’s bedroom window.
       Many of the ghoulish special effects used in The Exorcist were new and shocking to audiences when the film was released. Critics varied in their reviews of the film, with the HR review claiming it had “the most fiendish special effects ever designed,” while the 27 Dec 1973 NYT review stated that the film had reached a “new low.” A 6 Jan 1974 LAT article reported that audience members were often seen vomiting and fainting during each screening as a result of watching the film.
       In his interview at a 2006 AMPAS screening, Friedkin claimed that leading Catholic authorities supported the film, including the head of the Society of Jesus, the Jesuits, Father Pedro Arupe. Friedkin also noted that technical advisor Father John Nicola was the Catholic Church’s exorcism expert. However, at the time of its release, The Exorcist spawned countless magazine and newspaper editorials debating the existence of the devil, the validity of exorcisms and the merit of the film. A 29 Jan 1974 DV article noted that American Catholic leaders had denounced the MPAA for giving the picture an R rating rather than an X. MPAA president Jack Valenti, himself a Catholic, defended his decision in a letter published in a 25 Feb 1974 NYT article.
       The Exorcist broke box-office records in the United States, Europe and Japan and received the following Academy Award nominations: Best Actor in a Supporting Role (Miller), Best Actress (Burstyn), Best Actress in a Supporting Role (Blair), Best Art Direction (Bill Malley and Jerry Wunderlich), Best Cinematography (Owen Roizman), Best Film Editing (Jordan Leondopoulos, Bud Smith, Evan Lottman and Norman Gay), Best Director (Friedkin) and Best Picture, a category in which a horror film had never before been nominated. The film won Academy Awards for Best Adapted Screenplay for Blatty’s screenplay of his own novel and for Best Sound (Buzz Knudson and Chris Newman).
       On 6 Nov 1973, HR reported that Blatty had filed suit against Warner Bros. and Friedkin over credits and for being barred from production. Friedkin claimed that Blatty was only barred from post-production and that Blatty wanted the credit line, which was added prior to the picture’s release,: “William Peter Blatty’s The Exorcist.” In a 12 Nov 1973 HR article, executive producer Noel Marshall stated that Blatty had dropped the suit against the studio but still had plans to bring a suit against Friedkin over credits and being barred from post-production. According to 22 Jan 1974 HR article, Warner Bros. charged Newsweek magazine with infringement of copyright for the magazine’s use of pictures of Blair as she appeared in a demonic state. Warner Bros. stated that they purposefully withheld any images of those sequences from the public.
       According to a 2 Feb 1974 LAHExam article, stand-in Eileen Dietz filed a petition with SAG claiming that Friedkin had forced her to sign a gag order about playing Blair’s double for demonic scenes. While on 5 Feb 1974, HR reported that Friedkin denied Dietz performed in any demonic scenes, Dietz then stated in a 6 Mar 1974 Var that she had not claimed to have done all of the demonic scenes and had not granted interviews to the press, blaming Friedkin for false claims. A 12 Mar 1974 DV article reported that SAG ruled Dietz’s contract was not binding, but Dietz then refused to participate in a SAG arbitration.
       The film was embroiled further in legal battles over the years. While a 6 Feb 1974 DV article noted that Warner Bros. was to give Friedkin $4 million, as his ten percent cut of the film’s profits, on 1 Apr 1975, LAT reported that Friedkin then sued Warner for $5.8 million that he claimed was still due to him. A 13 Sep 1978 Var article stated that Friedkin finally settled with the studio, but Blatty was still involved in a suit against Warner Bros. for $1.5 million, while having already received $15 million from the studio.
       The Exorcist marked the film debut of then thirteen-year-old Linda Blair. Her mother, Elinore Blair, who accompanied her on set, had a cameo in the film as a nurse. The film also marked the film debut of stage actor and Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright Jason Miller and the final film of actor Jack MacGowran (1918--1973), who died during production. MacGowran played film director “Burke Dennings,” a character murdered by the possessed Regan. Swedish actor Max von Sydow was only 40 years old while playing “Father Merrin,” an elderly priest. HR production charts, as well as an early studio press release on the film, include J. Lee Thompson to the cast; however, the British director did not appear in the film. The press release suggested that Thompson would portray the director of the film that Chris was making, but that role was played by MacGowran. A modern source adds Mary Boylan and technical advisor Reverend John Nicola to the cast.
       According to a 13 Jun 1979 Var news item, The Exorcist was to be rereleased later that year. Several sequels and prequels of the film have been made, including the 1977 film The Exorcist II: The Heretic , directed by John Boorman and starring Linda Blair; the 1990 film The Exorcist III , written and directed by Blatty and starring George C. Scott and Jason Miller; the 2004 film Exorcist: The Beginning , directed by Renny Harlin and starring Stellan Skarsgård; and the 2005 film Dominion: Prequel to The Exorcist , directed by Paul Schrader and also starring Skarsgård. 

Bibliographic Sources:   Date   Page
Box Office   14 Jan 1974   p. 4656.
Daily Variety   20 Apr 1973.   
Daily Variety   10 Oct 1973.   
Daily Variety   24 Dec 1973.   
Daily Variety   29 Jan 1974.   
Daily Variety   6 Feb 1974.   
Daily Variety   12 Mar 1974.   
Hollywood Reporter   25 Aug 1972   p. 13.
Hollywood Reporter   29 Jun 1973   p. 14.
Hollywood Reporter   5 Nov 1973.   
Hollywood Reporter   6 Nov 1973.   
Hollywood Reporter   12 Nov 1973.   
Hollywood Reporter   24 Dec 1973   p. 3, 7.
Hollywood Reporter   3 Jan 1974.   
Hollywood Reporter   22 Jan 1974.   
Hollywood Reporter   5 Feb 1974.   
Hollywood Reporter   4 Oct 1974.   
Hollywood Reporter   10 Oct 1974.   
Los Angeles Herald Examiner   26 Dec 1973   Section B, pp. 1-2.
Los Angeles Herald Examiner   27 Jan 1974.   
Los Angeles Herald Examiner   2 Feb 1974.   
Los Angeles Times   18 Nov 1973.   
Los Angeles Times   26 Dec 1973   Section IV, p. 1, 24.
Los Angeles Times   6 Jan 1974.   
Los Angeles Times   1 Apr 1975.   
New York Times   27 Aug 1972.   
New York Times   27 Dec 1973   p. 46.
New York Times   13 Jan 1974.   
New York Times   25 Feb 1974.   
New Yorker   11 Mar 1974.   
Newsweek   7 Jan 1974   p. 60.
People   4 Mar 1974.   
Rolling Stone   28 Feb 1974   p. 16.
Time   14 Jan 1974.   
The Times (London)   15 Mar 1974.   
Variety   16 Aug 1973.   
Variety   26 Dec 1973   p. 12.
Variety   2 Jan 1974.   
Variety   30 Jan 1974.   
Variety   6 Mar 1974.   
Variety   13 Sep 1978.   
WSJ   25 Jan 1974.   

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