AFI Catalog of Feature Films
Movie Detail
Name Occurs Before Title Offscreen Credit Print Viewed By AFI
Munich
Alternate Title: Vengeance
Director: Steven Spielberg (Dir)
Release Date:   23 Dec 2005
Production Date:   late Jun--early Oct 2005 in Malta, Hungary, France and New York
Duration (in mins):   164 or 167
Print this page
Display Movie Summary


Cast:   Eric Bana (Avner [Kauffman])  
    Daniel Craig (Steve)  
    Ciaran Hinds (Carl [Habibi])  
    Mathieu Kassovitz (Robert)  
    Hanns Zischler (Hans)  
    Ayelet Zurer (Daphna [Kauffman])  
    Geoffrey Rush (Ephraim)  
    Gila Almagor (Avner's mother)  
    Michael Lonsdale (Papa)  
    Mathieu Amalric (Louis)  
    Moritz Bleibtreu (Andreas)  
    Valéria Bruni Tedeschi (Sylvie)  
    Meret Becker (Yvonne)  
    Marie-Josee Croze (Jeanette)  
    Yvan Attal (Tony, Andreas' friend)  
    Ami Weinberg (General [Zvi] Zamir)  
    Lynn Cohen (Golda Meir)  
    Amos Lavie (General [Aharon] Yariv)  
    Moshe Ivgy (Mike Harari)  
    Michael Warshaviak (Minister)  
    Ohad Shachar (Minister)  
    Rafael Tabor (Minister)  
    Sharon Cohen Alexander (General Nadev)  
    Shmuel Calderon (General Hofi)  
    Oded Teomi (Mossad accountant)  
    Alon Aboutbul (Israeli soldier with Zamir)  
    Makram J. Khoury (Wael Zwaiter)  
    Igal Naor (Mahmoud Hamshari)  
    Hiam Abbass (Marie Claude Hamshari)  
    Mouna Soualmen (Amina Hamshari)  
    Mostefa Djadjam (Hussein Abad Al-Chir)  
    Assi Cohen (Newly-wed man)  
    Lisa Werlinder (Newly-wed bride)  
    Djemel Barek (Zaid Muchassi)  
    Derar Suleiman (Abu Youssef)  
    Ziad Adwan (Kemal Adwan)  
    B. Jan Daneshmand (Kamal Nasser)  
    Rim Turki (Adwan's wife)  
    Jonathan Rozen (Ehud Barak)  
    Jonathan Uziel (Commando)  
    Guy Zu-Aretz (Commando)  
    Yossi Sagi (Commando)  
    Liron Levo (Commando)  
    Ohad Knoller (Commando)  
    Charley Gilleran (Commando)  
    Lyes Salem (Arab guard)  
    Carim Messalti (Arab guard)  
    Hichem Yacoubi (Arab guard)  
    Omar Mostafa (Arab guard)  
    Mahmoud Zemmouri (Older Lebanese man)  
    Souad Amidou (Yussef's wife)  
    Amrou Alkadhi (Yussef's son)  
    Omar Metwally (Ali)  
    Nasser Memarzia (Older Palestinian)  
    Abdelhafid Metalsi (Palestinian in 30's)  
    Karim Qayouh (Young Palestinian)  
    Mihalis Giannatos (Hotel Aristides porter)  
    Faruk Pruti (KGB liaison)  
    Rad Lazar (KGB liaison)  
    Laurence Fevrier (Papa's wife)  
    Habir Yahya (Girl with Papa)  
    Mehdi Nebbou (Ali Hassan Salameh)  
    Hicham Nazzal (Salameh guard)  
    Lemir Guerfa (Salameh guard)  
    Hisham Silman (Salameh guard)  
    Brian Goodman (Belligerent American)  
    Richard Brake (Belligerent American)  
    Robert John Burke (Belligerent American)  
    Yehuda Levi (Tel Aviv airport soldier)  
    Danny Zahavi (Tel Aviv airport soldier)  
    Itay Barnea (Israeli deputy consul NY)  
    Elyse Klaits (Consulate secretary)  
    Nabil Yajjou (Young Tarifa guard)  
    Karim Saleh ("Issa" [assumed name of] Luttif Afif)  
    Merik Tadros ("Tony, The Cowboy" [assumed name of] Yusuf Nazzal)  
    Mousa Kraish ("Badran" [assumed name of] Mohammed Safady)  
    Karim Saidi ("Kader" [assumed name of] Adnan Al-Gashey)  
    Mohammed Khouas ("Samir" [assumed name of] Jamal Al-Gashey)  
    David Ali Hamade ("Paulo" [assumed name of] Kalid Jawad)  
    Ben Youcef (Saleh)  
    Sami Samir (Abu Halla)  
    Guri Weinberg (Moshe Weinberg)  
    Sam Feuer (Yossef Romano)  
    Sabi Dorr (Yossef Gutfreund)  
    Wojciech Machnicki (Tuvia Sokolovsky)  
    David Feldman (Kehat Shorr)  
    Ori Pfeffer (Andre Spitzer)  
    Shmuel Edleman (Jacov Springer)  
    Joseph Sokolsky (Amitzur Shapira)  
    Leor Perel (David Berger)  
    Ossie Beck (Eliezer Halfin)  
    Guy Amir (Mark Slavin)  
    Haguy Wigdor (Zeev Friedman)  
    Roy Avigdori (Gad Tsabari)  
    Kevin Collins (American athlete)  
    Daniel Bess (American athlete)  
    Baya Belal (Palestinian woman watching TV)  
    Ula Tabari (Palestinian woman watching TV)  
    Saida Bekkouche (Aida refugee camp woman)  
    Fettouma Bouamari (Aida refugee camp woman)  
    Alexander Beyer (German reporter in Munich underground)  
    Amos Shoub (Israeli news anchor)  
    Rana Werbin (Female Israeli news anchor)  
    Jane Garioni (Italian girl in car)  
    Felicite Du Jeu (Young Swiss bank official)  
    Gil Soriano (Man in Haifa bar)  
    Mordechai Ben Shachar (Older man in Haifa bar)  
    Amani Zain (Palestinian teacher)  
    Leda Mansour (Palestinian teacher)  
    Sasha Spielberg (Young Israeli woman watching TV)  
    Renana Raz (Israeli woman watching TV)  
    Hagit Dasberg-Shamul (Israeli woman watching TV)  
    Patrick Kennedy (English reporter in Munich underground)  
    Stephane Freiss (French reporter in Munich underground)  
    Arturo Arribas (Spanish reporter in Munich underground)  
    Yaron Josef Motolla (Israeli reporter in Munich underground)  
    Jalil Naciri (Arab reporter in Munich underground)  
    Martin Ontrop (Camera crew in Munich)  
    Joram Voelklein (Camera crew in Munich)  
    Michael Schenk (Photographer at Munich)  
    Andreas Lust (News crew at Fürstenfeldbrook)  
    Tom Wlaschiha (News crew at Fürstenfeldbrook)  

Summary: In the early morning hours of 5 September 1972 at the height of the Olympic Games in Munich, West Germany, a group of eight men disguised as competitors arrive at a lightly guarded fence at the Olympic Village. With the assistance of drunken American athletes sneaking back into the village, the men, part of an extremist faction of the Palestinian Liberation Organization known as Black September, climb the barrier. Armed with assault rifles and grenades hidden in their sports bags, the men break into a dormitory housing a number of Israeli athletes and after killing two of the resisting Israelis, take nine others hostage. Over the next twenty-three hours, people in the Middle East and all over the world watch the continual television news coverage of the terrorist attack, which ends tragically when the terrorists murder the nine Israelis and German security kills five of the Palestinians. Two weeks later in Jerusalem, General Zvi Zamir, the head of Mossad, the Israeli intelligence agency, escorts Israeli-born agent Avner Kauffman to a meeting with Prime Minister Golda Meir and various ministers. Despite Israel’s retaliatory aerial and ground strikes against P.L.O. guerrilla bases on the Syrian and Lebanese borders, Zamir informs Avner that the prime minister has approved an additional clandestine operation to track down the Black September instigators of the Munich attack. Avner, Meir’s former bodyguard, agrees to consider participating in the mission, even though he has no experience as a field agent and knows he has been chosen because he grew up partially in Europe, prompting Meir to declare that Avner reminds her of his war-hero father. Avner is then left with Ephraim, his case handler, who informs him that he will lead four pre-selected agents to locate, track and murder eleven Palestinians known to have contributed to the Munich plot. Ephraim explains that as the Israeli government will have no official connection to the mission, Avner must officially resign from Mossad. Avner is advised that the team must work exclusively in Western Europe and will be provided salaries and funding in U.S. dollars deposited in Swiss bank safe-deposit boxes. Later, Avner tells his pregnant wife Daphna that he has accepted a secret government assignment that will take him away for several months. A few days later in Geneva, Avner meets his team members: Belgian toymaker and explosives specialist Robert; South Afrikaner car expert Steve; older, stoic German “cleanup” man Carl Habibi and antique dealer Hans, in charge of documents and accounting. The following week, the team begins their mission in Rome using information provided by Avner’s old school friend Andreas and his associate Tony. After stalking and killing former Black September member Wael Zwaiter, a Palestinian translator, Avner and the others travel to Paris. There, Tony puts Avner in contact with Louis, a mysterious underground informer who, for sizeable payments, provides location information on anyone with the stipulation that no governments are involved in the exchange. The men are then shocked to hear the news that the hijacking of a German Lufthansa jet has resulted in the release of the three surviving Black September members involved in the Munich attack. Galvanized, the team focuses on their next target, Mahmoud Hamshari, the French representative of Black September. After a lengthy and careful setup that provides the team with details of the apartment Hamshari shares with his wife and young daughter, the men place an explosive in Hamshari’s telephone that will be detonated manually after a team member calls. On the day of the strike, however, the operation is abruptly aborted when Hamshari’s daughter unexpectedly returns home and answers the booby-trapped phone. The mission proceeds later when Hamshari is alone, but when the explosion does not immediately kill him, Robert is disturbed. Hamshari dies days later, while Avner takes a quick, unauthorized trip to Israel to visit Daphna, who gives birth to their daughter. Knowing it will be difficult to return to Israel again, Avner asks Daphna if she would consent to relocate to New York City, and although she is disappointed to remain alone in a strange country, Daphna agrees. On information again provided by Louis, the team reunites in Nicosia, Cyprus where their target is Hussein Abad Al-Chir, a P.L.O. organizer and liaison to the Soviet K.G.B. Promising more accurate results, Robert devises an explosive that is hidden in Abad Al-Chir’s hotel mattress to be detonated after a signal from Avner in the room next door. The resulting blast is enormous, breaking through to Avner, who escapes uninjured with Carl’s help. Later, under questioning, Robert insists the plastic explosive was a higher grade than requested and reveals the material was provided by Louis, prompting the group to grow suspicious of their shadowy contact. Nevertheless, when the Frenchman subsequently provides information that three names on the target list are in Beirut, Avner seeks approval for the hit through Ephraim. Angered when Avner refuses to reveal his source’s identity, Ephraim nevertheless reluctantly approves the attack, even though he had earlier told Avner that he could go after targets in Europe only. The men join a larger Israeli commando force in a fierce assault against the Lebanese P.L.O. stronghold where targets Kamal Nasser, Kemal Adwan and Abu Youssuf are killed with many others. Some days later, the team regroups back in Paris, where Louis takes Avner to a spacious country farmhouse to meet the leader of his organization, his father, who is known to Avner only as “Papa.” At a large family afternoon meal, Papa tells Avner that since his involvement in the French Resistance during World War II, he has been distrustful of all governments. Papa states he will overlook Avner leaking the terrorists’ Beirut location to Israeli officials but cautions Avner not to involve any government again. Back in Paris, Avner demands that Louis provide the whereabouts of Ali Hassan Salameh, a well-known, high-ranking Palestinian, designated as the creator of the Munich plot. Insisting that Salameh is too difficult a target, Louis instead provides Zaid Muchassi, the replacement for Abad Al-Chir in Athens. Although Muchassi is not on the list, Avner decides to target him, which prompts unease among the team. On the team’s first night in the Athen’s safe house recommended by Louis, they are stunned when a group of Palestinians arrive to use the same hideout, forcing Avner's team to hastily identify themselves as members of the extremist Red Army Faction of the German underground. While smoking outside, Avner speaks Arabic with a Palestinian, Ali, who expresses his confidence that one day his people will have a nation and a homeland of their own. The next day, using dated explosive material provided by Louis, Robert places a bomb inside the television in Muchassi’s hotel room. In the early morning, Muchassi returns to his hotel escorted by a number of Russians and, to Avner’s surprise, Ali and the Palestinians. Upon receiving the signal that Muchassi has retired alone to his room, Robert activates the remote control detonator but there is no explosion. After several attempts fail, Hans rushes into the hotel and, breaking down the victim’s door, hurls more bombs at the television, setting off the original explosives. After helping Hans out of the hotel, Avner and the others engage in a brief gunfight with the Russians and the Palestinians in which Ali is killed. The team members panic upon realizing they have also killed a Soviet agent and wonder about repercussions. Later, Robert and Steve complain that Louis may be sabotaging their efforts. Although uncertain, Avner agrees to pay Louis well when the Frenchman reveals that Salameh is in London meeting with American C.I.A. agents for whom he provides information. In London, Avner and the men stalk the well-guarded Salameh and decide to make a risky street attack. That night as Avner, Steve and Robert move in on their target, however, a group of drunken Americans swarm around them, mistaking them for former acquaintances. In the ensuing confusion, Salameh disappears. Afterward, the frustrated team speculates that the “drunk” Americans were C.I.A. agents protecting Salameh. Back at the hotel an unsettled Avner sits at the bar, where an attractive young woman flirts with him. On his way to his room later, Avner runs into Carl and playfully tells him about the woman at the bar. With several months having passed since Avner has seen Daphna, he telephones her and is moved to tears when he hears his baby daughter already able to speak. Disturbed, Avner returns to the bar, but unable to find Carl, returns upstairs where he smells the woman’s distinctive perfume. Amused and abruptly concerned, Avner goes to Carl’s room and finds his partner shot to death in bed. Seeking assistance from Papa and Louis, Avner learns that the woman in the hotel is Jeanette, a well-known Dutch assassin. Louis suggests that the team’s killing a Russian has now made them targets, but Avner resolves to go after Jeanette. Robert protests, insisting that despite the retaliatory nature of their mission, Jews are meant to be “righteous.” Without consulting Ephraim, Avner, Steve and Hans proceed to Hoorn, Holland where they locate and kill Jeanette on her private houseboat. Back on the continent during a lull when no intelligence is forthcoming, Avner grows increasingly anxious, checking and rechecking his surroundings for fear that he has become a target. His paranoia grows when in Frankfurt, Hans goes missing and is later discovered knifed to death on a park bench. Fearful that Papa and Louis may have betrayed them, Avner decides the remaining team members should lay low for a period, but soon after learns that Robert has accidentally blown himself up in Belgium while fashioning a new bomb. Distraught, Avner confronts Louis for assurance that Robert was not murdered, and swearing that he has not given them up, Louis then directs Avner to Spain, where Salameh is attending a large political gathering. Avner and Steve proceed there alone and successfully breach the fence of the well-defended Palestinian compound. Upon being discovered by an armed teenager, the pair just manage to escape in a hail of gunfire. Later the men are picked up by Israeli soldiers and, in Tel Aviv at a debriefing, Steve tells Ephraim of their suspicions about Papa and Louis, but Avner refuses to reveal further details about their identity or how to contact them. With the mission now officially terminated, Avner visits his mother, who insists that constant world persecution of Jews justifies all actions taken to defend Israel. Avner returns to Brooklyn, where, despite his happiness at being with Daphna and their daughter, he is overcome with thoughts of the Munich massacre and his two-year mission of vengeance. Obsessed with the thought that he and his family are now being targeted, Avner contacts Papa who promises Avner no harm will come from him. Avner’s subsequent visit to the Israeli consul demanding to know if he is being hunted results in a visit from Ephraim. Needing assurance that the mission was legitimate, Avner insists on proof that the Palestinians killed were indeed connected to the Olympic murders. Ephraim dismisses Avner’s distress and reveals that Avner’s team was only one of several sent on the same mission. Ephraim criticizes Avner for remaining in New York, accusing him of abandoning Israel, but when Avner attempts to make amends by inviting him to dinner, Ephraim refuses. Alone, Avner returns home. 

Production Company: DreamWorks SKG  
  Alliance Atlantis Communications  
  Amblin Entertainment  
Production Text: A Steven Spielberg Film
A Steven Spielberg Film; An Amblin Entertainment/Kennedy/Marshall/Barry Mendel Production
Distribution Company: Universal Pictures (NBC Universal)
Director: Steven Spielberg (Dir)
  Adam Somner (1st asst dir)
  Zsuzsa Gurbán (1st asst dir, Budapest unit)
  Jérome Borenstein (1st asst dir, Paris unit)
  Emma Horton (Key 2d asst dir)
  Tamás Vass (2d asst dir, Budapest unit)
  Ali Cherkaoui (2d asst dir, Paris unit)
  Ian Stone (2d asst dir, New York unit)
  Will Dodds (Co-2d asst dir)
  Pierre Ellul (2d 2d asst dir)
  Eric Lasko (2d 2d asst dir, New York unit)
  Gary Rake (Addl 2d asst dir, New York unit)
  Kevin Walsh (3rd asst dir)
  Paul Bennett (3rd asst dir)
  Gergo Fülöp (3rd asst dir, Budapest unit)
  Colin Azzopardi (3rd asst dir, Malta unit)
  Ariane Lacan (3rd asst dir, Paris unit)
Producer: Kathleen Kennedy (Prod)
  Steven Spielberg (Prod)
  Barry Mendel (Prod)
  Colin Wilson (Prod)
Writer: Tony Kushner (Scr)
  Eric Roth (Scr)
Photography: Janusz Kaminski (Dir of photog)
  Mitch Dubin (A cam op)
  Danielle Massaccesi (B cam op/Steadicam)
  George Billinger (B cam op/Steadicam, New York unit)
  Steven Meizler (A cam 1st asst)
  Mark Spath (B cam 1st asst)
  Tom Jordan (A cam 2d asst)
  Pierson Silver (A cam 2d asst, New York unit)
  David O'Brien (B cam 2d asst)
  Mark McDevitt (B cam 2d asst, New York unit)
  Giulio Magnolia (Loader)
  John Floresca (Loader, New York unit)
  Theo Spielberg (Cam P.A.)
  Brad Ralston (Video assist)
  Rebecca Cremona (Video assist asst)
  Mike Bauman (Chief lighting tech)
  Gábor Hevesi (Chief lighting tech, Budapest unit)
  Philippe Malleck (Chief lighting tech, Paris unit)
  Jim Richards (Chief lighting tech, New York unit)
  Marek Modzelewski (Addl chief lighting tech)
  Tommy Dangcil (Asst chief lighting tech)
  Marek Bojsza (Elec)
  Mateusz Kuzniak (Elec)
  Adam Napora (Elec)
  Piotr Michalski (Elec)
  Michal Obloza (Elec)
  Adrian Tujak (Elec)
  Bogdan Modzelewski (Elec)
  Maciej Lisiecki (Elec)
  István Ménkü (Elec, Budapest unit)
  József Szocs (Elec, Budapest unit)
  Tibor Kun (Elec, Budapest unit)
  Jeffrey Soderberg (Chief rigging gaffer)
  Charles McIntyre (Rigging gaffer, Budapest unit)
  Attila Bilik (Rigging gaffer, Budapest unit)
  Greg Addison (Rigging gaffer, New York unit)
  Michael Tolochko (Rigging elec best boy)
  Michael Panevics (Chief fixtures rigger)
  Vladimir Holzknecht (1st rigger)
  Adrian Bartolo (1st rigger, Malta unit)
  David Skinner (Standby rigger)
  Werner Schelzig (Rigging elec)
  Hynek Jecha (Rigging elec)
  Jiri Zelenka (Rigging elec)
  Paul Dvrak (Rigging elec)
  Pavel Hoffman (Rigging elec)
  Daniel Kutaj (Rigging elec)
  György Berghoffer (Rigging elec, Budapest unit)
  Pal Perlaki (Rigging elec, Budapest unit)
  Viktor Racsek (Rigging elec, Budapest unit)
  Tibor Zámbo (Rigging elec, Budapest unit)
  Noel Micallef (Rigging elec, Malta unit)
  Kost Telyuk (Rigging elec, Malta unit)
  Steve Valletta (Rigging elec, Malta unit)
  Stoeckl Reinhard (Generator op)
  Jim Kwiatkowski (Key grip)
  Gábor Laczkó (Key grip, Budapest unit)
  Charles Lia (Key grip, Malta unit)
  Bernard Bregier (Key grip, Paris unit)
  Gérard Buffard (Key grip, Paris unit)
  Lamont Crawford (Key grip, New York unit)
  Bill Lowry (Rigging key grip, New York unit)
  Earl Perque, Jr. (Best boy grip)
  Jean-Philippe Marier (Best boy grip, Paris unit)
  Antal Berger (Best boy, Budapest unit)
  Xavier Renaudot (Best boy, Paris unit)
  Bill Almeida (Best boy, New York unit)
  Terrance Burke (Best boy, New York unit)
  Charley H. Gilleran (Key rigging grip)
  Zoltán Kristóffy (Key rigging grip, Budapest unit)
  Kevin Fahey (Best boy rigging grip)
  Joel Tishcoff (Rigging best boy, New York unit)
  Rachid Lacheb (Rigging grip)
  Neil Carr (Rigging grip, Budapest unit)
  Gábor Gelegonya (Rigging grip, Budapest unit)
  Harry Heeks (Rigging grip, Budapest unit)
  István Kozma (Rigging grip, Budapest unit)
  Tamás Lupp (Rigging grip, Budapest unit)
  Péter Nádai (Rigging grip, Budapest unit)
  Joseph Azzopardi (Rigging grip, Malta unit)
  Johan Mifsud (Rigging grip, Malta unit)
  John Mang (A cam dolly grip)
  Pat Garrett (B cam dolly grip)
  Jasper Johnson (B cam dolly grip, New York unit)
  Steve O'Hollearn (Grip)
  Jamie Franta (Grip)
  Bodie Hyman (Grip)
  Alex Klabukov (Grip)
  Ferenc Kráml (Grip, Budapest unit)
  Róbert Jász (Grip, Budapest unit)
  Lajos Dikó (Grip, Budapest unit)
  József Torba (Grip, Budapest unit)
  Benny Casha (Grip, Malta unit)
  Martin Farrugia (Grip, Malta unit)
  Lawrence Grima (Grip, Malta unit)
  Charles Scicluna (Grip, Malta unit)
  Steve Scicluna (Grip, Malta unit)
  Hans Lehner (Remote head and crane tech)
  Karen Ballard (Still photog)
  Gavin McKenzie (Supv TV playback tech)
  David Kirman (TV playback asst)
  Wolfgang Reichel (ARRI tech)
  ARRI Rentals Deutschland GmbH (Cameras and lenses by)
  ARRI Rentals Deutschland GmbH (Chapman cam dollies by)
Art Direction: Rick Carter (Prod des)
  Rod McLean (Supv art dir)
  Karen Wakefield (Standby art dir)
  Stephen Dobric (Standby art dir)
  Tony Fanning (Art dir, Budapest unit)
  Andrew Menzies (Art dir, Budapest unit)
  János Szabolcs (Art dir, Budapest unit)
  Iain McFadyen (Art dir, Malta unit)
  Ino Bonello (Art dir, Malta unit)
  Anne Seibel (Art dir, Paris unit)
  David Swayze (Art dir, New York unit)
  Robert Cowper (Asst art dir, Budapest unit)
  Judit Czák (Asst art dir, Budapest unit)
  Géza Kerti (Asst art dir, Budapest unit)
  Tom Still (Asst art dir, Budapest unit)
  Krisztina Szilágyi (Asst art dir, Budapest unit)
  Jeff Wisniewsky (Asst art dir, Budapest unit)
  Paul Kirby (Asst art dir, Malta unit)
  Jean-Yves Rabier (Asst art dir, Paris unit)
  Heesoo Kim (Asst art dir, New York unit)
  Karolina Slemer (Art dept coord, Budapest unit)
  Laura Dishington (Graphics des)
  Jools Faiers (Graphic des, Budapest unit)
  Elizabeth Colbert (Scenic graphic artist, Malta unit)
  Lino Chetcuti (Sign writer)
  Tamás Csoóry (Draftsman, Budapest unit)
  Charles Baldacchino (Draftsperson, Malta unit)
  Charlo Dalli (Draftsperson, Malta unit)
  Edit Blaumann (Art dept asst, Budapest unit)
  Anita Ernodi (Art dept asst, Budapest unit)
  Balázs Kóczán (Art dept asst, Budapest unit)
  Zoltán Moll (Art dept asst, Budapest unit)
  Alexandra Miklós (Art dept asst, Budapest unit)
  Imre Nyéky (Art dept asst, Budapest unit)
  Peppi Gauci (Art dept asst, Malta unit)
  Eric Borg (Art dept asst, Malta unit)
Film Editor: Michael Kahn (Ed)
  Patrick Crane (Assoc ed)
  Michael Trent (Asst ed)
  Michael Cuevas (Asst ed)
  Michael Wilson (Asst ed)
  Mark Gillard (Asst ed)
  Silja Tônisson (Apprentice ed)
  Gary Burritt (Negative cutter)
Set Decoration: John Bush (Set dec)
  George De Titta, Jr. (Set dec, New York unit)
  Sophie Newman (Asst set dec, Budapest unit)
  Christian Huband (Asst set dec, Malta unit)
  Jean-Charles Venet (Asst set dec, Paris unit)
  Chrissy Mayer (Asst set dec, New York unit)
  Nagy Gabor (Set dresser, Budapest unit)
  Gábor Nagy (Set dresser, Budapest unit)
  Alan Bailey (Prop master)
  Joel Barkow (Prop master, New York unit)
  Rachael Weinzimer (Asst prop master, New York unit)
  Jason Hopperton (Prop supv)
  Dave Fisher (Prop supv)
  Wesley Peppiatt (Prop supv)
  Peter Bigg (Prop supv, Budapest unit)
  Micky Pugh (Key standby propman)
  Mickey Wolfson (Standby propman)
  Vincent Vassallo (Standby propman)
  Attila Kiss (Standby props, Budapest unit)
  Sándor Nagy (Standby props, Budapest unit)
  Raymond Ellul (Chargehand propman, Malta unit)
  Gábor Posewitz (Props buyer, Budapest unit)
  Laurence Cauchi (Props buyer, Malta unit)
  Darren Heywood (Standby carpenter)
  Andy Guyett (Standby painter)
  Mike Cuddy (Prop storeman)
  Tony Graysmark (Const coord)
  Patrick Veron (Const coord, Paris unit)
  Rich Hebrink (Const coord, New York unit)
  Chris Brown (HOD carpenter)
  Wayne Day (HOD carpenter)
  Phill Babbage (HOD plasterer)
  Mike Guyett (HOD painter)
  Mike Sotheron (HOD painter, Budapest unit)
  Mike Sotheron (HOD painter, Malta unit)
  Arthur Horsley (HOD rigger)
  Balázs Kovacs (Swing gang, Budapest unit)
  Arpád Toth (Swing gang, Budapest unit)
  Chris De Titta (Leadman, New York unit)
Costumes: Joanna Johnston (Cost des)
  Jeremy Turner (Asst cost des)
  Nigel Boyd (Asst cost des)
  Laura Sewrey (Asst cost des, New York unit)
  Charlotte Finlay (Cost supv)
  Lindsay Pugh (Cost supv)
  Marion Weise (Cost supv)
  Krisztina Vavrinecz (Cost supv, Budapest unit)
  Yvonne Zarb Cousin (Cost supv, Malta unit)
  Patricia Colin (Cost supv, Paris unit)
  Marcia Patten (Cost supv, New York unit)
  Eva Vass (Asst to cost supv, Budapest unit)
  Sheena Wichary (Cost coord)
  Peter White (Key set cost)
  Susan J. Wright (Set cost, New York unit)
  Mary C. Giercsak (Set cost, New York unit)
  Pam Aaron (Set cost, New York unit)
  Carolyn Handscombe (Cost asst)
  Brendan Handscombe (Cost asst)
  Peter Hornbuckle (Cost asst)
  Sally Crees (Cost asst)
  Gina Bonello (Cost asst, Malta unit)
  Rita Saliba (Cost asst, Malta unit)
  James Debona (Cost asst, Malta unit)
  Kira Drury (Cost asst, Malta unit)
  Joanna Roderick (Cost)
  Frank Gallagher (Cost)
  Charlotte Child (Cost)
  Paul Yeowell (Cost)
  Françoise Fourcade (Cost, Paris unit)
  Vivienne Jones (Cost buyer)
  Dominic Young (Chief cutter)
  Linda Lashley (Seamstress)
  Stephen Kill (Dyer)
  Krisztina Fekete (Ward asst, Budapest unit)
  Gabriella Schwarz (Ward asst, Budapest unit)
  Ildikó Fogt (Ward asst, Budapest unit)
  Csaba Zollai (Ward asst, Budapest unit)
  Péter Palotás (Ward asst, Budapest unit)
  Simon Atherton (Principal armourer)
  Tommy Dunne (Standby armourer)
Music: John Williams (Mus)
  Kathy Nelson (Exec in charge of mus for Universal Pictures)
  Edward Karam (Orch)
  Conrad Pope (Orch)
  Ken Wannberg (Mus ed)
  Ramiro Belgardt (Mus ed)
  Shawn Murphy (Mus scoring mixer)
  Susan De Crescent (Mus contractor)
  Jo Ann Kane Music Service (Mus preparation)
  Lisbeth Scott (Vocal solos)
  Stephen Erdody (Cello solo)
  Joel Sill (Source record consultant)
  Sony Pictures Studios (Mus rec at)
  Adam Michalak (Recordist)
  Greg Loskorn (Scoring crew)
  Bryan Clements (Scoring crew)
  Mark Eshelman (Scoring crew)
  Sue McLean (Scoring crew)
Sound: Ben Burtt (Sd des/Supv sd ed)
  Richard Hymns (Supv sd ed)
  André Fenley (Supv asst sd ed)
  Andy Nelson (Re-rec mixer)
  Christopher Scarabosio (Re-rec mixer)
  Mark Berger (Addl re-rec mixer)
  Gary Rizzo (Addl re-rec mixer)
  David Stephenson (Prod sd mixer)
  William Sarokin (Sd mixer, New York unit)
  Matthew Wood (Sd des recordist)
  John Casali (Boom op)
  Gary Dodkin (Boom op)
  Jeanne Gilliland (Boom op, New York unit)
  Addison Teague (Sd eff ed)
  Christopher Scarabosio (Sd eff ed)
  Al Nelson (Sd eff ed)
  Coya Elliot (Asst eff ed)
  Pascal Garneau (Apprentice ed)
  Gwendolyn Yates Whittle (ADR supv)
  John Nutt (ADR ed)
  Barbara McBane (ADR ed)
  Bruce Lacey (ADR ed)
  Stuart McCowan (Asst ADR ed)
  De Lane Lea Post Production Ltd. (ADR rec at)
  Fox Post Production Facilities (ADR rec at)
  Buena Vista Post Production (ADR rec at)
  Goldcrest Post Production Facilities Ltd. (ADR rec at)
  Cinéphase (ADR rec at)
  N.L.S. Studios Ltd. (ADR rec at)
  Peter Gleaves (ADR re-rec mixer)
  Alex Beddow (ADR re-rec mixer)
  Charleen Steeves (ADR re-rec mixer)
  Doc Kane (ADR re-rec mixer)
  Sylvain Gage (ADR re-rec mixer)
  Ewa Sztompke-Oatfield (Supv dial ed)
  Richard Quinn (Dial ed)
  Marilyn McCoppen (Dial ed)
  Karen A. Brocco (Asst dial ed)
  Kevin Sellers (Foley ed)
  Luke Dunn Gielmuda (Foley ed)
  Jana Vance (Foley artist)
  Ellen Heuer (Foley artist)
  Denise Thorpe (Foley artist)
  Frank Aglieri-Rinella (Foley mixer)
  Sean England (Foley rec)
  Skywalker Sound, A Lucasfilm Ltd. Company (Post prod sd services)
  20th Century Fox Studios (Post prod facilities)
  Robert Renga (Rec)
  Craig Heath (Rec)
  Denis St. Amand (Re-rec eng)
  Richard Murphy (Utility, New York unit)
Special Effects: Joss Williams (Spec eff supv)
  Ferenc Deák (SFX supv, Budapest unit)
  Mike Dawson (SFX asst supv)
  Keith Dawson (Spec eff tech)
  Paul Dimmer (Spec eff tech)
  Tony Edwards (Spec eff tech)
  Jody Eltham (Spec eff tech)
  Terry Flowers (Spec eff tech)
  Alex Gunn (Spec eff tech)
  Matthew Johnson (Spec eff tech)
  Jason Leinster (Spec eff tech)
  Keith Shannon (Spec eff tech)
  David Watson (Spec eff tech)
  Hayley Williams (Spec eff tech)
  Victoria Williams (Spec eff tech)
  Ashley Yallop (Spec eff tech)
  Zsolt Kindl (Spec eff tech, Budapest unit)
  Jeff Cunningham (Spec eff tech, Budapest unit)
  Zoltán Várkonyi (Spec eff tech, Budapest unit)
  Kenneth Cassar (Spec eff tech, Malta unit)
  Fredrick Buhagiar (Spec eff tech, Malta unit)
  Joe Calleja (Spec eff tech, Malta unit)
  Raymond Debono (Spec eff tech, Malta unit)
  Charles Debattista (Spec eff tech, Malta unit)
  Grégoire Delage (Key spec eff, Paris unit)
  Pascal Declercq (Spec eff coord, Paris unit)
  Connie Brink (Spec eff coord, New York unit)
  BLT (Main title des)
  Pacific Title and Art Studios (Subtitles & opticals)
  Gyula Krasnyánszky (Pyrotechnic tech, Budapest unit)
  Industrial Light & Magic, A Lucasfilm Ltd. Company (Spec visual eff)
  Pablo Helman (Visual eff supv)
  Gretchen Libby (Visual eff prod)
  Grady Cofer (VFX assoc supv)
  Christian Alzmann (Digital artist)
  Jay Cooper (Digital artist)
  Sebastien Moréau (Digital artist)
  Chad Taylor (Digital artist)
  Alex Tropiec Jr. (Digital artist)
  Lance Baetkey (Rotoscoping lead artist)
  David Gray (VFX prod coord)
Make Up: Paul Engelen (Key makeup artist)
  Florence Roumieu (Key makeup artist, Paris unit)
  Carl Fullerton (Key makeup artist, New York unit)
  Melissa Lackersteen (1st asst makeup artist)
  Rosanna Parker (Makeup artist)
  Julia Wilson (Makeup artist)
  Craig Lindberg (Makeup artist, New York unit)
  Nicola Buck (Crowd makeup, Budapest unit)
  Kati Jakots (Crowd makeup, Budapest unit)
  Jeremy Woodhead (Key hair stylist)
  Ken Walker (Key hair stylist, New York unit)
  Deborah Jarvis (Hairstylist)
  Paula Price (Hairstylist)
  Hilary Haines (Hairstylist)
  Gabriella Németh (Crowd hairdresser, Budapest unit)
  Judit Halász (Crowd hairdresser, Budapest unit)
  Marcelle Genovese (Hairdresser, Malta unit)
  Alain Luzy (Key hairdresser, Paris unit)
  Neal Scanlan Studio Ltd. (Prosthetics by)
Production Misc: Jina Jay (Casting)
  Lucky Englander (Casting)
  Fritz Fleischhacker (Casting)
  Terri Taylor (U.S. casting consultant)
  Robin Hudson (Casting asst)
  Dixie Chassey (Casting asst)
  Rodica Alcalay (Casting contact Israel)
  Hervé Jakubowicz (Casting contact France)
  Marc Robert (Casting contact France)
  Juliette Ménager (Casting asst France)
  Shaila Rubin (Casting asst Italy)
  Makis Gaziz (Casting asst Greece)
  Chris Micallef (Crowd casting coord, Malta unit)
  Gordon Bonello (Asst crowd casting, Malta unit)
  Evy Figliolini (Extras casting, Paris unit)
  Grant Wilfrey (Extras casting, New York unit)
  Brendan Donnison (Voice casting)
  Vanessa Baker (Voice casting)
  Ian Hickinbotham (Unit prod mgr)
  Denis L. Stewart (Unit prod mgr, Budapest unit)
  Jonathan Filley (Unit prod mgr, New York unit)
  Aneta Cebula (Unit mgr)
  Gilles Castera (Prod mgr, Budapest unit)
  Péter Seres (Prod mgr, Budapest unit)
  S. Tamás Zákonyi (Prod supv, Budapest unit)
  Mike Fantasia (Prod supv/Supv loc mgr, Budapest unit)
  John Bernard (Prod supv, Paris unit)
  György Kunter (Head of loc, Budapest unit)
  Imre Balázs (Loc mgr, Budapest unit)
  György Czultor (Loc mgr, Budapest unit)
  Iván Eros (Loc mgr, Budapest unit)
  Veronika Megyeri (Loc mgr, Budapest unit)
  Lásló Sterk (Loc mgr, Budapest unit)
  Emma Pill (Loc mgr, Malta unit)
  Mark Somner (Loc mgr, Malta unit)
  James Grant (Loc mgr, Malta unit)
  Antonin Depardieu (Loc mgr, Paris unit)
  Lyn Pinezich (Loc mgr, New York unit)
  Donny Martino (Asst loc mgr, Budapest unit)
  Anna Karikás (Asst loc mgr, Budapest unit)
  Mònika Nagy (Asst loc mgr, Budapest unit)
  Judit Ritteródesz (Asst loc mgr, Budapest unit)
  Zsolt Spitzer (Asst loc mgr, Budapest unit)
  Veronika Dobos (Asst loc mgr, Budapest unit)
  Ali James (Asst loc mgr, Malta unit)
  Joseph Formosa Randon (Asst loc mgr, Malta unit)
  Timothée Talandier (Asst loc mgr, Paris unit)
  Romuald Rousseau (Asst loc mgr, Paris unit)
  Vincent Rivier (Asst loc mgr, Paris unit)
  Randy Manion (Asst loc mgr, New York unit)
  Tia Adrian (Loc coord, Budapest unit)
  Clarissa Newman (Loc coord, Malta unit)
  Pierre Agius (Loc asst, Malta unit)
  Isaac Borg (Loc asst, Malta unit)
  Annamaria Grima (Loc asst, Malta unit)
  Kate Miller (Loc asst, Malta unit)
  Nick Oliver (Loc asst, Malta unit)
  Ana Maria Quintana (Scr supv)
  Kristie Macosko (Assoc to Mr. Spielberg)
  Elyse Klaits (Assoc to Ms. Kennedy)
  Jennifer Teves (Assoc to Mr. Wilson)
  Ben Bohling (Asst to Mr. Spielberg)
  Elizabeth Nye (Asst to Mr. Spielberg)
  Ryan Suffern (P.A. to Mr. Spielberg)
  Neal Dusedau (Asst to Mr. Mendel)
  Martha Magnuson (Asst to Mr. Mendel)
  Rebecca Anastasi (Prod asst)
  Amee Carter (Prod asst)
  Insa Faye (Prod asst)
  Justin Grizzoffi (Prod asst)
  Jan Kwiecinski (Prod asst)
  Mieszko Pawlak (Prod asst)
  Milosz Resztak (Prod asst)
  Mikolaj Rysiewicz (Prod asst)
  Stefan Szwed (Prod asst)
  Berta Barbalics (Prod asst, Budapest unit)
  Krisztian Forgacs (Prod asst, Budapest unit)
  Adám Jankovits (Prod asst, Budapest unit)
  Katalin Skuts (Prod asst, Budapest unit)
  Zoltan Simon (Prod asst, Budapest unit)
  Marcin Starzecki (Prod asst, Budapest unit)
  Marton Varadi (Prod asst, Budapest unit)
  Laurence Chisholm (Prod asst, Malta unit)
  Mario Ebejer (Prod asst, Malta unit)
  Julian Galea (Prod asst, Malta unit)
  Melissa Adeyemo (Prod asst, New York unit)
  Oorlagh George (Prod asst, New York unit)
  Dean Simakis (Prod asst, New York unit)
  Lia Mayer-Sommer (Prod asst, New York unit)
  Jesse Thompkins (Prod asst, New York unit)
  Bea Beliczai (Set prod asst, Budapest unit)
  Alex Kirby (Set prod asst, Budapest unit)
  Péter László (Set prod asst, Budapest unit)
  András Szocs (Set prod asst, Budapest unit)
  Marc Casolani (Set prod asst, Malta unit)
  Joshua Cassar (Set prod asst, Malta unit)
  Wesley Ellul (Set prod asst, Malta unit)
  Michael Flores (Set prod asst, Malta unit)
  Francesca Galea (Set prod asst, Malta unit)
  John Kuiecinski (Set prod asst, Malta unit)
  David Boitard (Set prod asst, Paris unit)
  Estelle Chatenoud (Set prod asst, Paris unit)
  Morgan Develay (Set prod asst, Paris unit)
  Christelle Lahaye (Set prod asst, Paris unit)
  Guilhem Malgoire (Set prod asst, Paris unit)
  Alexandra Maugrion (Set prod asst, Paris unit)
  Melanie Ravot (Set prod asst, Paris unit)
  Olivier Riffard (Set prod asst, Paris unit)
  Alexandre Singer (Set prod asst, Paris unit)
  Topaz Adizes (Set prod asst, New York unit)
  Matthew Mason (Set prod asst, New York unit)
  Kenyon Noble (Set prod asst, New York unit)
  Steve Oppenheim (Set prod asst, New York unit)
  Zac Pontier (Set prod asst, New York unit)
  Brett Robinson (Set prod asst, New York unit)
  Jessie Toradano (Set prod asst, New York unit)
  Hiam Abbass (Consultant and dial coach)
  Anne Walsh (Dial asst)
  Barbara Berkery (Voice and dialect coach)
  Joy Ellison (Mr. Bana's dialect coach)
  Graham Kelly (Picture vehicle supv)
  Charles Heidet (Action vehicle coord)
  Zoltan Szalay (Asst action vehicle coord, Budapest unit)
  Patrick McManus (Asst action vehicle coord, Malta unit)
  Ian Clarke (Picture car supv)
  Sean Thornton (Picture car mechanic)
  Boris Olomi (Picture car mechanic)
  Michael Pedraza (Post prod asst)
  Lucinda Sturgis (Prod buyer)
  Péter Gantner (Buyer, Budapest unit)
  Nicola Barnes (Researcher)
  Mark Taylor (Researcher)
  Jessica Biggins (Researcher)
  Carla Raygoza (Prod coord)
  Elaine Burt (Prod coord, Budapest unit)
  Rita Galea (Prod coord, Malta unit)
  Patricia Reid-Douglas (Prod coord, Paris unit)
  Diana E. Latham (Prod coord, New York unit)
  Karla Bukantz (Asst prod coord)
  Justyna Pawlak (Asst prod coord)
  Kelly Taylor-Dias (Asst prod coord, Budapest unit)
  Katalin Baranyi (Asst prod coord, Budapest unit)
  Sarah Delooz (Asst prod coord, Paris unit)
  Kim Jackson (Asst prod coord, New York unit)
  Deborah Wuliger (Unit pub)
  Lizzi Lowell (Pub assoc)
  Gregor Wilson (Financial controller)
  Johanna Klingenberger (Prod accountant, Budapest unit)
  Yolanda Galea (Prod accountant, Malta unit)
  Mike Phillips (Prod accountant, New York unit)
  Frédéric Greene (Chief prod accountant, Paris unit)
  Corinne Saglio (Prod accountant, Paris unit)
  Anne Wilson (1st asst accountant)
  Kinga Kovács (1st asst accountant, Budapest unit)
  Marty Elfalan (1st asst accountant, Malta unit)
  Theresa Marsh (1st asst accountant, New York unit)
  Jane Beck (2d asst accountant)
  Carlo Pratto (2d asst accountant)
  Lisa G. Shillingburg (2d asst accountant)
  Kolos Trimmel (2d asst accountant, Budapest unit)
  Virág Forgács (Asst accountant, Budapest unit)
  Eszter Kovács (Asst accountant, Budapest unit)
  Frédéric Chene (Asst prod accountant, Paris unit)
  Laure Irrmann (Asst prod accountant, Paris unit)
  Abacus (Accounting services, Budapest unit)
  Lisa Jean Felski (Post prod accountant)
  Charmaine Spiteri (Accounts asst)
  Annette Camilleri (Payroll accountant, Malta unit)
  Isabelle Cassar (Accounting clerk, Malta unit)
  Henry Dray (Transportation coord)
  Brendon Boyd (Transportation coord, Budapest unit)
  Jérôme Servant (Transportation coord, Paris unit)
  Zsolt Somogyi (Transportation capt, Budapest unit)
  Gilles Charvin (Transportation capt, Paris unit)
  Steve Hammond (Transportation capt, New York unit)
  Michael Dray (Asst transport coord)
  Szabolcs Mihályi Dr. (Asst transportation coord, Budapest unit)
  Soma Benke (Asst transportation capt, Budapest unit)
  Flashback Film Productions Ltd. (Prod services in Hungary)
  Peninsula Film (Prod services in France provided by)
  Translux (Prod facilities)
  Siss Ltd. (Prod security)
  Martin Cohen (Post prod exec)
  Stephanie Ito (Post prod supv)
  Samantha Becker (Post prod coord)
  Mavis Formosa (Prod secy, Malta unit)
  Amy Lo (Prod secy, New York unit)
  1st Unit Caterers (Catering, Malta unit)
  Sean Rarrell (DGA trainee, New York unit)
Stand In: Paul Jennings (Stunt coord)
  Sy Hollands (Asst stunt coord)
  Domonkos Párdányi (Asst stunt coord/Avner double)
  Gábor Piroch (Hungarian stunt supv, Budapest unit)
  David Cronnelly (Stunt rigger)
  Wade Allen (Tactical adv)
  Steve Abela (Stunt performer)
  Menyhert Balog (Stunt performer)
  Sandor Boros (Stunt performer)
  Gabe Cronnelly (Stunt performer)
  Nicholas Daines (Stunt performer)
  Georgi Dimitrov (Stunt performer)
  Rick English (Stunt performer)
  Glenn Foster (Stunt performer)
  Albert Goldberg (Stunt performer)
  R. D. Hansen (Stunt performer)
  Rowley Irlam (Stunt performer)
  Ivo Kehayov (Stunt performer)
  Kalin Kerin (Stunt performer)
  Kristian Kery (Stunt performer)
  Adam Kirley (Stunt performer)
  Kai Martin (Stunt performer)
  Nick McKinless (Stunt performer)
  Lee Morrison (Stunt performer)
  Daniel Naprous (Stunt performer)
  Ray Nicholas (Stunt performer)
  James O'Dee (Stunt performer)
  Miklos Pardanyi (Stunt performer)
  Peter Pedrero (Stunt performer)
  Dominic Preece (Stunt performer)
  Radoslav Purbanov (Stunt performer)
  Svilen Skerlev (Stunt performer)
  Nicovich Sammunt (Stunt performer)
  Kala Vodenitharov (Stunt performer)
  Reg Wayment (Stunt performer)
  Rob McCabe (Eric Bana's stand-in)
Color Personnel: Dale Grahn (Col timer)
MPAA Rating: R
Country: United States
Language: English

Music:
Songs: "Ain't No Sunshine," written & performed by Bill Withers, courtesy of Columbia Records, by arrangement with Sony BMG Music Entertainment; "My Girl," written by Ronald White & Smokey Robinson, performed by The Temptations, courtesy of Motown Records, under license from Universal Music Enterprises; "Clowns," from Twenty-Four Easy Piano Pieces For Children, written by Dmitri Kabalevsky; "Papa Was a Rollin' Stone," written by Barrett Strong and Norman Whitfield; "Ela-Ela," written by Bambos Zacharias and Savvas Paphiti, performed by Romiosini, courtesy of Arc Music Productions Int., Ltd. by arrangement with Source/Q; "Palamakia," written by Giorgos Mitsakis, performed by Talking To Charos, courtesy of Arc Music Productions Int., Ltd., by arrangement with Source/Q; "Black Magic Woman," written by Peter Alan Green, Arabic translation by Hiam Abbass; "El Tahmilla," arranged by Ahmed El Shair, performed by El Mastaba Centre, courtesy of Extreme Production Music USA; "Des millions d'amoureux," written by F. Barcellini & P. Bilat, performed by Georgette Lemaire, courtesy of Mercury Records France, a division of Universal Music S.A., under license from Universal Music Enterprises; "To Traghoudi Tou Teke," arranged & performed by Manolis Papos, courtesy of Extreme Production Music USA; "Rahji La Bladi," arranged & performed by Rajab Chamlakh, courtesy of Extreme Production Music USA; "Never on Sunday," written by Manos Hadjidakis, performed by Melina Mercouri, courtesy of MGM Music Inc., under license from Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc.; "Let's Stay Together," written by Willie Mitchell, Al Green & Al Jackson, Jr., performed by Al Green, courtesy of Hi Records, under license from EMI Film & Television Music; "Neo Koritsi," arranged & performed by Manolis Papos, courtesy of Extreme Production Music USA; "Prelude to a Kiss," written by Edward "Duke" Ellington, Irving Gordon & Irving Mills, performed by Stan Getz, courtesy of Stan Getz Associates, LLC; “But Beautiful,” written by Johnny Burke & Jimmy Van Heusen, performed by Stan Getz, courtesy of The Verve Music Group, under license from Universe Music Enterprises.
Composer: Jimmy Van Heusen
  Hiam Abbass
  F. Barcellini
  P. Bilat
  Johnny Burke
  Rajab Chamlakh
  Ahmed El Shair
  Edward "Duke" Ellington
  Irving Gordon
  Al Green
  Peter Alan Green
  Manos Hadjidakis
  Al Jackson, Jr.
  Dmitri Kabalevsky
  Irving Mills
  Willie Mitchell
  Giorgos Mitsakis
  Savvas Paphiti
  Manolis Papos
  Smokey Robinson
  Barrett Strong
  Ronald White
  Norman Whitfield
  Bill Withers
  Bambos Zacharias
Source Text: Based on the book Vengeance by George Jonas (New York, 1984).
Authors: George Jonas

Copyright Claimant Copyright Date Copyright Number
Universal City Studios, LLLP 22/12/2005 dd/mm/yyyy PA0001267506
DreamWorks LLC 22/12/2006 dd/mm/yyyy PA0001267506

PCA NO: 42321
Physical Properties: Sd: dts; SDDS Sony Dynamic Digital Sound; Dolby Digital in selected theatres
  col: Fuji; Kodak Motion Picture Film
  Lenses/Prints: processing by Technicolor and Laboratoire Éclair

 
Genre: Drama
  Drama
Sub-Genre: Historical
  with songs
 
Subjects (Major): Assassins
  Israel
  Jews
  Justice
  Murder
  Palestinians
  Revenge
  Special agents
  Terrorists and terrorism
  Undercover operations
 
Subjects (Minor): Accidental death
  Athens (Greece)
  Banks
  Bars
  Bombs
  Cooks
  Cyprus
  Espionage
  Ethics
  Explosions
  Family relationships
  Fear
  Food
  French
  Guilt
  Gunfights
  Hostages
  Impersonation and imposture
  London (England)
  Golda Meir
  Mossad
  Mothers and sons
  Munich (Germany)
  Nationalism
  The Netherlands
  New York City--Brooklyn
  Olympic Games
  Paranoia
  Paris (France)
  Pregnancy
  Radios
  Reporters
  Rome (Italy)
  Television news and information
  Wives

Note: The working title for the film was Vengeance . Only the company credits, title and prologue appear before the film; all other credits are at the end. The following written prologue appears in the opening onscreen credits: “Inspired by real events.” There are numerous misspellings and inconsistencies in the cast and crew names and some character names in the onscreen credits. The closing credits state that Munich was filmed with the support of financial incentives provided by the Government of Malta, and Hungarian sponsorship was provided by the Bank of Budapest.
       The film opens with the arrival of Black September, an extremist Palestinian group, at the Olympic Village, the dormitory break-in and killing of two Israeli athletes, then proceeds to follow the course of the attack through television news reports. The actual details of the event are shown sporadically throughout the film, with the death of the nine Israeli hostages shown near the end of the film. The film’s final shot of the New York City skyline featured the World Trade Center Twin Towers, which were destroyed in the Sep 2001 terrorist attack.
       An Apr 2004 NYT article announced director Steven Spielberg’s intention to begin production on Munich in Jun 2004. Munich was the first feature film script by playwright Tony Kushner, author of the Pulitzer Prize-winning play Angels in America and its HBO television adaptation. Spielberg’s son Theo served as a production assistant on the film and his daughter Sasha appeared in a bit role. The Apr 2004 NYT article listed Ben Kingsley as a possible star, but he was not in the film. Some online sources add the following actors to the cast: Mosko Alkalai, Lili Bordán, Arthur Chazal, Marcus Collins, Greg D’Agostino, Fran Labbe, Arnaud Marciszewer, George Mendel, Ben O’Brien, Dov Reiser, Eva Röse, Jean Smart and Guy Zoaretz. Munich was filmed in Malta, Paris, Hungary and New York and completed principal photography in Oct 2005 for a Dec 2005 release.
       Munich had a lengthy pre-production history. According to an 18 Dec 2005 LAT feature article, in the late 1990s producer Barry Mendel purchased the rights to George Jonas' 1984 book Vengeance , which detailed the clandestine Israeli response to the murder of eleven of its athletes competing in the XX Olympiad in Munich, West Germany in Sep 1972. In 1986 the book had been produced as a highly praised, HBO cable television movie, Sword of Gideon , starring Steven Bauer and Michael York and directed by Michael Anderson. Mendel brought the property to producer Kathleen Kennedy, who commissioned three successive scripts. Janet and David Peoples wrote the initial draft and Eric Roth worked on numerous drafts, according to an 18 Dec 2005 LAT article. According to an earlier 4 Dec 2005 LAT article, Charles Randolph contributed a polish of the Roth script, before Kushner began working on it. The 18 Dec 2005 LAT piece stated that Randolph had written a complete draft of Munich . A 12 Dec 2005 Time feature article on the film does not mention the contributions of either Randolph or Roth, the latter of whom received screen credit beneath Kushner. Both Time and the 18 Dec 2005 LAT article stated that Kushner’s initial draft was over 300 pages in length.
       According to the Time article, Kennedy, a frequent production partner with Spielberg, proposed the project to the director, but Spielberg expressed uneasiness over taking on a project about the difficult and emotionally volatile politics of the Middle East. After the Sep 2001 terrorist attacks, according to the LAT piece, Spielberg shied further away from the material as potentially exploitative. He remained interested in the project, however, and after discussing the script with playwright Kushner, decided to commit to the production. Spielberg purportedly was impressed by Kushner’s input on the production, partially because of Kushner’s involvement with the editing of a book on the American view of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
       Numerous articles on Munich noted that Vengeance met with controversy from the time of its publication, with its veracity coming under question. A Jul 2005 Var article quoted a former Mossad (Israeli Intelligence Agency) agent as describing the Jonas book as “nonsense, totally baseless.” The former agent did not dispute the mission itself, but rather the portrayal of the agents and the manner in which the operations were conducted. A Jul 2005 The Times (London) article stated another criticism of the book was that the Mossad agent who was the basis for “Avner Kauffman” was actually only an El Al airlines security guard. Both Vengance and the film mention that Avner’s Mossad work included time as an airline security agent. The 18 Dec 2005 LAT article on Munich indicated that press accounts widely assumed Avner was based on Israeli security expert Yuval Aviv, whom Jonas, in a legal dispute over the book’s rights, described as a “key source” for Vengeance . Spielberg and Kushner recounted meeting the “real agent” described in the book, but refused to identify him. Spielberg’s spokesman mentioned in the LAT article that much of the controversy surrounding the book stemmed from the fact that Israel has never formally admitted that Prime Minister Golda Meir authorized assassination squads to retaliate for the Munich massacre.
       Other articles and sources noted that the main discrepancy of Jonas’ book is its evasion of the fact that the Palestinians killed by the special unit from 1972 to 1974 were low-level Black September members not directly linked to the Munich attack. The Var article quoted Spielberg as stating that Vengeance was only one source used for the script’s development. Although Spielberg showed the completed script to various political experts, several articles quoted former Mossad head Zvi Zamir (who is depicted in Munich ) and Abu Daoud, the Palestinian generally credited as one of the masterminds behind the Munich attack and a co-founder of Black September, as complaining about not being consulted during the script’s development.
       Munich details the massacre that occurred at the 1972 Munich Olympics, when eleven Israeli athletes were attacked in their dormitory apartments by members of Black September. Two Israeli athletes were initially killed in the dormitory and the other nine held hostage for nearly a day. The athletes, five members of Black September and a German policeman died at the Fürstenfeldbruck military airfield during a botched rescue attempt by German security.
       Black September has been defined as an offshoot of the Fatah (a reverse acronym for the Palestine Liberation Movement or “conquest”) movement of the Palestinian Liberation Organization, a multi-party federation dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state. Black September was formed in 1970 as a response to the violent expulsion from Jordan of Palestinian refugees by King Hussein. Although Black September was originally a small group of fedayeen (one ready to sacrifice his life for a cause) out to seek revenge on Jordan, their objectives soon focused on the Palestinian situation and the group participated in numerous international political assassinations and airplane hijackings from 1971 to 1973.
       The group’s best known operation was the attack against the Israeli athletes in Munich. Black September was disbanded in 1973 by the P.L.O. when leader Yasser Arafat declared it would restrict attacks to Israel and the territories occupied by the 1967 6-Day War. Black September’s unprecedented attack at Munich, highlighted by worldwide television coverage, has been cited by many experts as a major turning point in international terrorism.
       Portions of the opening sequences in Munich use the actual coverage by America’s ABC television network, which broadcast the Olympic Games. The film shows the iconic moment when popular ABC sportscaster Jim McKay received notification of the Israeli athletes’ deaths, and stated, “They’re all gone.” Spielberg duplicated other well-known televised moments from the 23-hour ordeal, such as that of a masked terrorist cautiously stepping out onto the balcony of one of the dormitory apartments. The voices of ABC reporters Howard Cosell (1918—1995) and Peter Jennings (1938—2005) are also heard throughout the opening sequences of Munich .
       As mentioned in the film and confirmed in various historical sources, just three days after the Munich assault, Israel retaliated with a massive military air strike against ten P.L.O. bases just inside Syria and Lebanon. Another strike took place a week later. As noted in historical sources, despite the ferocity of these attacks, many within the Israeli government felt the brutality of the Munich attack warranted a still stronger response. Prominent among those was Mossad head Zamir, who had flown to Munich during the crisis. Although Israel already had a covert anti-terrorist unit designated Caesarea, within ten days of Munich, Prime Minister Meir authorized a plan to eliminate “terror operatives” through a series of assassinations aimed at the leaders and plotters of Fatah and Black September. The plan, mentioned in many contemporary sources, was dubbed “Wrath of God,” which is not referred to by name in Munich . The head of the mission was the commander of Caesarea, Martin Harari, depicted briefly in the film as one of the important security figures at Meir’s home. According to historical documents on the Olympic attack and its aftermath released years after Vengeance , Harari personally oversaw three assassination teams that comprised “Wrath of God.” These same sources note the fact, not mentioned in Munich , that each strike had to have the prime minister’s approval and, although the strikes may have been discussed with cabinet members, the decision to proceed in each case was Meir’s alone in the first two years of the operation. Although Vengeance and Munich suggest that the retaliatory mission against those who plotted the Olympic attack ended by late 1973 or early 1974, other historical sources confirm that in reality it continued until 1992, with each succeeding Israeli prime minister signing off on approved targets.
       As mentioned in the movie, just weeks after Munich, Israel was stunned by the release of the three surviving Black September members, who were being held by German security. The men were freed as part of an agreement with a faction of the P.L.O. after the hijacking of a Lufthansa airplane (carrying only thirteen passengers). Years later, inquiries suggested that the hijacking was coordinated in advance between Palestinians and Germany, which was uncomfortable holding the Black September members and fearful of further terrorist attacks on its soil. After the release of the Palestinians, no acts of terrorism occurred in West Germany until the late 1980s. Of the three survivors, two were eventually killed by “Wrath of God” agents and one remains alive in hiding. The surviving member participated (appearing in shadow) in the 1999 Academy Award-winning documentary on the attack, One Day in September , directed by Kevin McDonald.
       Scenes in Munich suggest that Avner relays vital information to his superiors provided by French contact “Louis” about the location of three top-level Fatah officers in Beirut. Modern historical sources do not support the assumption that any Mossad agent working in the field provided such intelligence. The strike, designated operation “Spring of Youth,” is most remembered as the mission in which future Israeli prime minister Ehud Barak disguised himself as a woman to lead the attack, which is depicted in the film.
       The strikes as shown in Munich are generally accurate in their depiction. Although several men contributed to the design of the Munich attack, as stated in Munich , the head of Black September operations and a close associate of Arafat was Ali Hassan Salameh, nicknamed the “Red Prince.” Not shown in Munich was a 1973 bungled attempted assassination strike on Salameh by Israeli agents in Lillehammer, Norway which resulted in the killing of a Moroccan waiter, mistaken for Salameh. The last attempted targeting of Salameh shown in Munich , where Avner and “Steve” pursue Salameh to Spain, is completely fictitious. As noted in the film’s conclusion, Salameh was killed in Jan 1979 by a car bomb planted by Israeli agents.
       Several articles noted that Spielberg initially intended to release Munich with little to no publicity, including personal interviews. Two weeks prior to the film’s release, however, the lengthy Time magazine cover story was published, in which Spielberg described Munich as his “prayer for peace.” Immediately afterward, criticism of the film by some prominent Jewish leaders focused on Spielberg’s possible suggestion that the killings of the Israelis and the subsequent murders of the Palestinians were morally comparable. A 9 Dec 2005 NYT article quoted the Israeli consul general in Los Angeles as stating that the film’s implication that Israel’s response to the Olympic massacre had caused an escalation in terror was “pure fiction.”
       Due to the potential controversy generated by these responses, Spielberg gave a lengthy interview to LAT , which was incorporated into the paper’s 18 Dec 2005 “Calendar” feature piece. A 20 Dec 2005 DV article described the director’s attempts to screen the film for the current chief of Mossad and other agents who worked for the agency during the early 1970s. Producer Kennedy arranged a screening of the film for two widows of Israeli athletes killed in Munich. The women expressed relief that Israel’s mistaken murder in Lillehammer was not depicted and that Israel’s reputation was not dishonored. Reviews of the film were mixed, some praising its dramatic merits, and others expressing frustration with what they viewed as Spielberg’s “naïve” political message.
       Munich was selected by AFI as one of the ten Movies of the Year for 2005. The film received five Academy Award nominations, for Best Picture, Directing, Adapted Screenplay, Film Editing and Original Score. The film also received Golden Globe nominations for Spielberg for Best Director and Kushner for Best Screenplay. Spielberg was nominated by the Directors Guild for the DGA Award for Outstanding Directorial Achievement in Feature Film for 2005. 

Bibliographic Sources:   Date   Page
Daily Variety   20 Dec 2005   p. 7, 22.
Entertainment Weekly   23 Dec 2005   pp. 38-41, 58-59.
Hollywood Reporter   10 Jul 2005.   
Hollywood Reporter   12 Dec 2005.   
Los Angeles Times   6 Nov 2005.   
Los Angeles Times   30 Nov 2005   Calendar, p. 1, 8.
Los Angeles Times   4 Dec 2005   Calendar, p. 10.
Los Angeles Times   18 Dec 2005   Calendar, p. 1, 30-31.
Los Angeles Times   23 Dec 2005   Calendar, p. 1, 8.
New York Times   23 Apr 2004.   
New York Times   9 Dec 2005.   
New York Times   23 Dec 2005.   
New York Times   26 Dec 2005.   
Time   12 Dec 2005.   
The Times (London)   10 Jul 2005.   
Variety   25 Jul 2005   p. 5, 58.
Variety   12 Dec 2005.   

Display Movie Summary
The American Film Institute is grateful to Sir Paul Getty KBE and the Sir Paul Getty KBE Estate for their dedication to the art of the moving image and their support for the AFI Catalog of Feature Films and without whose support AFI would not have been able to achieve this historical landmark in this epic scholarly endeavor.
 
Advanced Search
Support our efforts to preserve hisotory of film
Help AFI Preserve Film History

© 2017 American Film Institute.
All rights reserved.
Terms of use.