AFI Catalog of Feature Films
Movie Detail
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Brokeback Mountain
Director: Ang Lee (Dir)
Release Date:   2005
Premiere Information:   Venice Film Festival: 2 Sep 2005; Los Angeles, San Francisco and New York openings: 9 Dec 2005
Production Date:   24 May--early Aug 2004
Duration (in mins):   134
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Cast: In order of appearance Heath Ledger (Ennis Del Mar)  
    Jake Gyllenhaal (Jack Twist)  
    Randy Quaid (Joe Aguirre)  
    Valerie Planche (Waitress)  
    David Trimble (Basque)  
    Victor Reyes (Chilean sheepherder #1)  
    Lachlan Mackintosh (Chilean sheepherder #2)  
    Michelle Williams (Alma)  
    Larry Reese (Jolly minister)  
    Marty Antonini (Timmy)  
    Tom Carey (Rodeo clown)  
    Dan McDougall (Bartender #1)  
    Don Bland (Biker #1)  
    Steven Cree Molison (Biker #2)  
    Anne Hathaway (Lureen Newsome)  
    Duval Lang (Announcer)  
    Dean Barrett (Bartender #2)  
    Hannah Stewart (Alma Jr., age 3)  
    Scott Michael Campbell (Monroe)  
    Mary Liboiron (Fayette Newsome)  
    Graham Beckel (L. D. Newsome)  
    Kade Philps (Ennis, age 9)  
    Steffen Cole Moser (K. E. Del Mar, age 11)  
    Brooklyn Proulx (Jenny, age 4)  
    Keanna Dubé (Alma Jr., age 5)  
    James Baker (Farmer #1)  
    Pete Seadon (Farmer #2)  
    Sarah Hyslop (Alma Jr., age 9-12)  
    Jacey Kenny (Jenny, age 7-8)  
    Jerry Callaghan (Judge)  
    Cayla Wolever (Jenny, age 11)  
    Cheyenne Hill (Alma Jr., age 13)  
    Jake Church (Bobby, age 10)  
    Ken Zilka (Roughneck #1)  
    John Tench (Roughneck#2)  
    Linda Cardellini (Cassie)  
    Anna Faris (Lashawn Malone)  
    David Harbour (Randall Malone)  
    Kate Mara (Alma Jr., age 19)  
    Will Martin (Carl)  
    Gary Lauder (Killer mechanic)  
    Christian Fraser (Grease monkey)  
    Cam Sutherland (Assailant)  
    Roberta Maxwell (Jack's mother)  
    Peter McRobbie (John Twist)  
    Mary McBride (Singer)  

Summary: In 1963, just outside Signal, Wyoming, hardened ranch foreman Joe Aguirre hires two nineteen-year-old farm boys to tend a large herd of sheep for the summer on Brokeback Mountain. Hard-working and coarse, Ennis Del Mar and Jack Twist are eager for the wages and the camping in open wilderness the job requires. Aguirre assigns Jack to tend the sheep, but demands that he tent beside the herd each night to protect them from predators. Further, he insists that Jack do so without a campfire, despite the cold temperatures, to avoid alerting the rangers, who require that the herders stay on designated campsites miles from the herd. Jack can return to the site for breakfast and dinner, made by Ennis, who is hired to cook and attend to weekly supply runs. The next day, Jack and Ennis get to know each other over a drink. Desperate to avoid farm work with his strict father, outgoing Jack earns his living riding rodeo bulls. The more reserved Ennis, orphaned at a young age, was reared by his sister and brother in poverty after the bank foreclosed on their farm. That afternoon, Jack and Ennis load the mules, saddle the horses and herd over a thousand sheep onto Brokeback Mountain’s vast pastures. In the first few weeks, the men settle into a routine with little communication. Ennis only reveals that he is marrying his sweetheart Alma in the fall, while Jack rants about the hours commuting between the herd and camp each day. On Ennis’ first supply rendezvous, a bear spooks the mules and horse, throwing him to the ground and causing him to search for hours for their supplies. Wounded, Ennis returns late to camp, where a concerned Jack tends to him. Later, Ennis, hoping to appease Jack, who is tired of canned beans, shoots an elk for meat and offers to camp with the sheep. As the days linger on, the intimate physical conditions of the camp and nightly whiskey drinking by the campfire open the men to teasing and talking. Jack proudly displays his rodeo belt buckle and admits his disappointment that his father, also a bull rider, never came to see him ride, while Ennis divulges that he was forced to quit high school to earn a living on his own and cares little for rodeoing, of which his father disapproved. Encouraged that Ennis has finally opened up, Jack mocks his own rodeo enthusiasm with bumbling antics and jokingly calls himself a “sinner” while explaining his Pentecostal upbringing, and a relaxed Ennis admits he is still a virgin. One night, Ennis, too drunk to return to the sheep, attempts to sleep by the campfire, but when it dies out, Jack orders the shivering man into his small tent. Late that night, Jack reaches for Ennis, who briefly resists but then draws Jack into a passionate kiss and the two have quick, rough sex. When Ennis returns to camp that evening after tending the sheep, he tells Jack that their night together was a “one shot thing.” Both quietly agree that they are not “queer” and continue their lovemaking that evening, more tenderly than before. The men continue to spend their nights together in the ensuing weeks, but after a snow storm hits the mountain, Aguirre, who has spotted the men in intimate horseplay through binoculars, orders them to bring the herd down early, claiming that more storms are expected. Jack tries to ease the tension by playfully lassoing his sullen lover, but Ennis is so overcome with unfamiliar emotions at the prospect of their summer ending that he violently punches Jack in the face. Having returned the herd to Aguirre, Ennis watches Jack’s truck pull away after a cursory farewell and is soon fighting back nausea and tears, unable to accept either his love for Jack or the end of their affair. The next summer, Jack returns to Aguirre after a year on the rodeo circuit, but the foreman hatefully berates him for “stemming the rose” with Ennis and refuses to rehire him. Meanwhile, Ennis works as a ranchhand and lives with his wife Alma and their two baby daughters, Alma, Jr. and Jenny, in a small apartment above a laundromat in Riverton, Wyoming. Resisting his longing for Jack, Ennis regularly pressures Alma into having anal sex despite her aversion to it and vents his frustration by picking fights with other men. In Texas, Jack marries self-assured barrel racer Lureen Newsome and works as a salesman for the Newsome farm equipment business, where he endures daily belittlement from Lureen’s father, L. D. Four years after his summer on Brokeback, Jack, having heard that Ennis lives in Riverton, sends a postcard there to arrange for them to meet when he drives through. On the appointed day, Ennis eagerly embraces and kisses Jack upon his arrival as a stunned Alma surreptitiously witnesses the scene. Claiming to Alma that he and Jack will be drinking all night, Ennis instead makes love to Jack at a hotel then returns home the next morning only to say that he is going on a weekend fishing trip, leaving Alma in utter despair. While camping, Jack speaks of ranching together, but Ennis stubbornly refuses anything but secretly meeting a few times a year. He then recounts his father’s vile warning: When Ennis was a child, he learned about ranchers Earl and Rich, who lived quietly together until other ranchers beat Earl to death to punish them for their homosexuality. Ennis’ father forced his two young sons to see Earl’s mutilated corpse, his penis torn from his body, as gruesome and haunting deterrent from the unacceptable behavior. Although sympathetic, Jack complains that every four years is not enough, but Ennis warns "If you can't fix it, you gotta stand it." Ennis and Jack then meet several times a year in Wyoming for their romantic camping trips under the pretext of “fishing,” enduring the long absences. Meanwhile Alma, unable to tolerate Ennis’ emotional distance and refusal to get a better paying job to support the family, divorces him and marries her boss, grocery store owner Monroe. Learning of Ennis’ divorce, Jack arrives unannounced in Riverton to spend an unscheduled weekend together, but Ennis claims that he must remain in Wyoming for the girls, who are visiting him that weekend. Heartbroken, Jack seeks solace by visiting a male prostitute in Mexico. On Thanksgiving, after dining with Alma, Monroe and the girls, Ennis, unable to admit his homosexuality, physically attacks Alma when she finally confronts him about his affair with “nasty Jack.” After he meets again with Jack, Ennis explains his growing paranoia that others can sense his homosexuality. When Jack suggests that he begin a new life in Texas, Ennis once again vehemently insists that he cannot leave because of his responsibilities. Soon after, Ennis begins dating saucy waitress Cassie and introduces her to the now teenage Alma, Jr., who bluntly states that her father will not marry again. Meanwhile, Jack, unknown to Ennis, continues to have love affairs with other closeted homosexuals. On one of their camping trips, Jack and Ennis, now in their thirties, share a marijuana joint and talk about their unsatisfactory lives. After Ennis informs him that they cannot meet again until November, not August as they had planned, Jack beseeches his lover to stop creating distance between them. Surmising that Jack is seeking sex elsewhere, Ennis jealously rages, blames Jack for his own homosexual behavior and finally weeps in Jack’s arms. While comforting Ennis, Jack remembers him as he was on Brokeback Mountain, when he relished their tenderness and was comfortable with their love. Later in Riverton, after Cassie tearfully confronts him for ceasing contact, Ennis, unable to tell her where his love really lies, offers her no explanation. Weeks later, Ennis’ postcard to Jack is returned with "deceased" stamped on it, prompting him to call Lureen for the first time. Lureen tells him that Jack died accidentally when he drowned in his own blood after a tire rim flew off and knocked him unconscious, but the shocked Ennis believes that Jack was beaten to death for his homosexuality. Learning that Jack wanted his ashes scattered at Brokeback Mountain, Ennis drives to the Twist family’s farm in Lightning Flat, Wyoming to carry out the request. Jack's father John's abhorrence of his deceased son is evident as he recounts that Jack had promised to take over the family farm with a divorced man he met recently. John then refuses to give Ennis the ashes, but Jack’s demure mother shows him to Jack's childhood room, where Ennis finds a shirt he had believed was lost on Brokeback, still stained with blood from their fight, hanging inside Jack's shirt. Cradling it, Ennis mourns his lover and returns to Jack's mother, who silently accepts Ennis' love for her son by offering him a bag to carry the memento. Sometime later, nineteen-year-old Alma, Jr. visits her father in his meager trailer to announce her upcoming marriage and leaves her jacket behind. As he gingerly places the jacket on his closet shelf, Ennis gazes at the two shirts, Jack's and his, hanging one inside the other next to a postcard of Brokeback Mountain, still longing to be with his first and only love.


Production Company: Focus Features (NBC Universal)
  River Road Entertainment  
Production Text: An Ang Lee Film
Distribution Company: Focus Features (NBC Universal)
Director: Ang Lee (Dir)
  Michael Hausman (1st asst dir)
  Pierre Tremblay (1st asst dir)
  Brad Moerke (2d asst dir)
  Kathy Ringer (3rd asst dir)
  Travis McConnell (Trainee asst dir)
Producer: Diana Ossana (Prod)
  James Schamus (Prod)
  William Pohlad (Exec prod)
  Larry McMurtry (Exec prod)
  Michael Costigan (Exec prod)
  Michael Hausman (Exec prod)
  Alberta Film Entertainment (Exec prod)
  Scott Ferguson (Co-prod)
Writer: Larry McMurtry (Scr)
  Diana Ossana (Scr)
Photography: Rodrigo Prieto (Dir of photog)
  Peter Wunstorf (2d unit dir of photog/B-cam op)
  Damon Moreau (A-cam/Steadicam op)
  Trevor Holbrook (1st asst A-cam)
  Garth Longmore (2d asst A-cam)
  Kirk Chiswell (1st asst B-cam)
  Chris Bang (2d asst B-cam)
  Kelly Strong (Cam trainee)
  Alic Chehade (C-cam op)
  Chris Hassen (1st asst C-cam)
  Brett Manyluk (2d asst C-cam)
  Rob Doak (Video assist/Playback)
  Christopher Porter (Gaffer)
  Chris Sprague (Gaffer)
  David Vernerey (Best boy elec)
  Tony Skaper (Genny op)
  Dean Merrells (Lamp op)
  Landin Walsh (Lamp op)
  Colin Allen (Lamp op trainee)
  Gordon Schmidt (Rigging gaffer)
  Al Whitmore (Best boy rigging elec)
  Kim Olsen (Key grip)
  John Adshead (Key grip)
  Alison Rigby (Best boy grip)
  Tim Milligan (Dolly grip)
  Ivan Hawkes (Key rigging grip)
  Corey Lee (Grip)
  Chris Kosloski (Grip)
  Colin Fitzgerald (Grip trainee)
  Kimberley French (Still photog)
  Clairmont (Cam systems)
  Gerldine Peroni (Cam systems)
Art Direction: Judy Becker (Prod des)
  Tracey Baryski (Art dir)
  Laura Ballinger (Art dir)
  Tori James (Asst art dir)
  Ricardo Olinger (Art dept trainee)
  Sara Ossana (Art dept intern)
  Pat Goettler (Graphic artist)
  Corrie Neyrinck (Draftsperson)
Film Editor: Geraldine Peroni (Ed)
  Dylan Tichenor (Ed)
  Kimberly Saree Tomes (1st asst ed)
  Shelby Siegel (1st asst ed)
  Beth Moran (Asst ed)
  Exact Cut (Negative cuttter)
  Tom Mayclim (Negative cutter)
  Pivotal Post (Avid equipment provided by)
Set Decoration: Patricia Cuccia (Set dec)
  Catherine Davis (Set dec)
  Carrie Marklinger (Alberta match set dec)
  Loraine Edwards (Alberta match set dec)
  Ken Wills (Prop master)
  Justin Onofriechuk (Asst prop master)
  Sherrie Wills (Props buyer)
  Cory Wills (Props trainee)
  Tom Edwards (Lead dresser)
  Chris Smith (On set dresser)
  Jordy Wihak (On set dresser)
  Chris MacRae (Set dresser)
  Leanna Thompson (Dresser)
  Mike Arzillo (Dresser)
  Rick Lovegrove (Dresser)
  Shane Nichol (Dresser)
  Jim Patrick (Dresser)
  Rene Jansen (Set buyer)
  Jurgen Lutze (Const coord)
  Gerald Gerlinsky (Const foreman)
  Otto Helmig (Const buyer)
  Dean Baker (Head carpenter)
  Larry Pollon (Head carpenter)
  Dana Rainer (On set carpenter)
  Richard Brouillet (Scenic carpenter)
  Alain DuPerron (Scenic carpenter)
  Clair Hein (Scenic carpenter)
  Fred Norgard (Scenic carpenter)
  Gabriel Bardwell (Carpenter)
  Richard Barrett (Carpenter)
  Michael Willis (Carpenter)
  Katherine Young (Carpenter)
  Jesse Singleton (Const labourer)
  Annie Haywood (Scenic paint coord)
  Brad Kaughman (Paint foreman)
  Aaron McCullough (Paint foreman)
  Stuart Friesen (Sign painter)
  Rick Janzen (Sign painter)
  Charmaine Husum (On set painter)
  Barbara Chandler (Scenic painter)
  Christine MacDonald (Scenic painter)
  Loyola Lewis (Scenic painter)
  Larry Lucoe (Scenic painter)
  Jessie Johnsen (Painter)
  Jason Mackenzie (Painter)
  Glen Tallis (Painter)
  Jason Webster (Painter)
  Colt Hausman (Paint intern)
  Thomas Yaremko (Head greensman)
  Coral Tilbury-Dambrauskas (Lead greens)
  Eugene Gogowich (On-set greens)
Costumes: Marit Allen (Cost des)
  Renée Bravener (Asst cost des)
  Kelly Fraser (Cost supv)
  Christine Thomson (Cost supv)
  Jeffrey Fayle (Set cost supv)
  Devora Brown (Truck cost supv)
  Leslie Tufts (Extras cost)
  Quynh Chestnut (Pattern cutter)
  Lizzie McGovern (Breakdown artist)
  Susan Montalbetti (Breakdown artist)
  Katalin Berta (Cost)
Music: Gustavo Santaolalla (Mus)
  Kathy Nelson (Mus supv)
  Marcelo Zarvos (Addl mus by)
  Anibal Kerpel (Mus ed)
  Annette Kudrak (Mus ed)
  Christine Bergren (Mus legal and clearances by)
  Jennifer Pray (Mus legal and clearances by)
  Anibal Kerpel (Mus scoring mixer)
  Richard Emerson (Orch/Cond)
  David Campbell (Strings arr)
  David Sabee (Contractor)
  Gustavo Santaolalla (Score prod)
Sound: Drew Kunin (Prod sd mixer)
  Peter Melnychuk (Boom op)
  Geo Major (2d boom)
  C5, Inc. (Post prod sd facility)
  Eugene Gearty (Supv sd ed)
  Philip Stockton (Supv sd ed)
  Kenton Jakub (ADR ed)
  Igor Nikolic (1st asst sd ed)
  Chris Fielder (1st asst sd ed)
  Larry Wineland (FX asst sd ed)
  Sara Stern (Sd intern)
  Frank Kern (Foley supv)
  Kam Chan (Foley ed)
  George A. Lara (Foley recordist/eng)
  Marko Costanzo (Foley artist)
  David Warzynski (Foley asst)
  Thomas J. O'Connell (ADR mixer)
  Mike Fox (ADR mixer)
  Rick Canelli (ADR recordist)
  Mike Fox (ADR recordist)
  Andy Wright (ADR recordist)
  Jay Gallagher (ADR recordist)
  Warner Bros. Studio Facilities in Hollywood (ADR rec at)
  Monkeyland Audio, Inc. (ADR rec at)
  Soundfirm Sydney Pty. Ltd (ADR rec at)
  Swelltone Labs (ADR rec at)
  Reilly Steele (Re-rec mixer)
  Eugene Gearty (Re-rec mixer)
  Terrance Laudermilch (Re-rec)
  Sound One (Re-rec at)
  Avi Laniado (Mix tech)
  Brad Hohle (Dolby sd consultant )
Special Effects: Maurice Routly (Spec eff coord)
  Jason Paradis (Asst spec eff coord)
  Buzz Image Group Inc. (Visual eff)
  Louis Morin (Visual eff supv)
  François Métivier (Senior inferno artist)
  Ara Khanikian (Inferno artist)
  Pierre-Simon Lebrun-Chaput (3D artist)
  François Lord (3D artist)
  Alexandre Lafortune (3D artist)
  Philippe Sylvain (3D artist)
  Matthew Rouleau (3D artist)
  Bruno-Olivier Laflamme (3D artist)
  Jean-François Lafleur (3D artist)
  Robin Tremblay (3D artist)
  Glenn Silver (Roto artist)
  Marie-Josée Quellet (Roto artist)
  Annie Godin (Visual eff line prod)
  Catherine Coley (Visual eff prod secy)
  Cine-Byte Imaging Inc. (Digital opticals)
  Alan Bak (Senior prod supv)
  Tom Bak (Senior prod supv)
  Rick Hannigan (Prod supv)
  Jeff Baker (Tech supv)
  Mark Tureski (Digital opticals/Titles)
  Chris Ross (Digital opticals/Titles)
  Drake Conrad (Scanning and rec)
  Felix Heeb (Scanning and rec)
  Paul Mantler (Scanning and rec)
  Jason Giberson (Scanning and rec)
  Diana Madureira (Prod coord)
  yU + Co (Title des)
Make Up: Manlio Rocchetti (Dept head, makeup)
  Linda Melazzo (Key makeup artist)
  Mary Lou Green (Dept head, hair)
  Penny Lea Thompson (Key hair)
Production Misc: Avy Kaufman (Casting)
  Elizabeth Greenberg (Casting assoc)
  Deb Green (Canadian casting)
  Erin Flasch (Canadian casting asst)
  Trish Robinson (Vancouver casting)
  Gloria Wright (Casting asst)
  Alyson Lockwood (Extras casting)
  Barbara Harris (ADR voice casting)
  Scott Ferguson (Unit prod mgr)
  Tom Benz (Unit prod mgr)
  Karen Bedard (Scr supv)
  Hudson Cooley (Prod coord)
  Marla Touw (1st asst prod coord)
  Catherine McGovern (2d asst prod coord)
  Karen Redford (Asst to Mr. Lee)
  David Lee (Asst to Mr. Lee New York)
  Neil Bell (Asst to Mr. Ledger)
  Liat Baruch (Asst to Mr. Gyllenhaal)
  Paul Getto (Asst to Mr. Schamus)
  Dave Targan (Asst to Mr. Schamus)
  Anikah McLaren (Asst to Mr. Schamus)
  Lucia Peraza (Asst to Mr. Santaolalla and Mr. Kerpel)
  Adrian Sosa (Asst to Mr. Santaolalla and Mr. Kerpel)
  Mathew Provost (Asst to prods)
  Catherine Shao (Mr. Lee's intern)
  Kurt Enger (Prod intern)
  Shane Madden (Tech adv)
  Tim Cyr (Tech adv)
  Joy Ellison (Dialect coach)
  Darryl Solly (Loc mgr)
  Jay St. Louis (Asst loc mgr)
  Ed Huery (Trainee loc mgr)
  Charles May (Loc scout)
  Cody Klepper (Loc scout)
  Terry Marsh (Loc scout)
  Edsel Hilchie (Loc scout)
  Steven Hanulik (Office prod asst)
  Sean Finnan (Prod asst)
  Dan Kuzmenko (Prod asst)
  Evan Godfrey (Prod asst)
  Cameron Dales (Prod asst)
  Tyler Flewelling (Prod asst)
  Mark Gamache (Prod asst)
  Naomi Robinson (Prod asst)
  Gerry Robert Byrne (Post prod supv)
  Geoffrey Sledge (Post prod asst)
  Kate Abernathy (Post prod asst)
  Penny Sewell (Post prod asst)
  AON/Albert G. Ruben (Insurance provided by)
  Sheppard Mullin Richter & Hampton (Legal services provided by)
  Robert Darwell (Legal services provided by)
  Michael Holland (Legal services provided by)
  Now Clear This Research (Clearances by)
  Jay Floyd (Clearances by)
  Michelle Dunta (Clearances by)
  Searchworks, Inc. (Addl clearances by)
  Roxanne Mayweather (Addl clearances by)
  Suzanne Shelton (Addl clearances by)
  Anne Hannan (Prod accountant)
  Jill Antal (Payroll accountant)
  Patricia Compton (2d asst accountant)
  Robert Roscorla (2d asst accountant)
  Val Brown (Accounting clerk)
  Trevanna Post, Inc. (Post prod accountant)
  Jodi Yeager (Post prod accountant)
  David Linck (Unit pub)
  Dan Klepper (Transportation coord)
  Tom Lloyd (Transportation capt)
  Kim Breckenridge (Driver)
  Eddie Washington (Driver)
  Dayle Simpson (Driver)
  Jody Hargraves (Driver)
  Dave McBean (Driver)
  Steven Shayler (Driver)
  Carla Klepper (Driver)
  Lawrence Gooch (Driver)
  Bruce Milward (Driver)
  Jacqueline Simpson (Driver)
  Frank Biro (Driver)
  Dave MacDonald (Driver)
  Darryl Bateman (Driver)
  Al Basaraba (Driver)
  Fred Dunphy (Driver)
  Debbie Porter (Driver)
  Mark Jones (Driver)
  Doss Griffiths (Driver)
  Coleman Robinson (Driver)
  Ralph McCoy (Driver)
  Ray Breckenridge (Driver)
  Alfie Creighton (Driver)
  Stew DePasse (Driver)
  Gerry Hornbeck (Animal management)
  Wildlife Incorporated (Animal management)
  Martin Urquhardt (Field biologist)
  T J Bews (Animal coord)
  Ken Zilka (Animal wrangler capt)
  Florence Krisko (Dog trainer)
  Cathy Vayda (Asst dog trainer)
  Ruth LaFarge (Bear trainer)
  Lachlan Mackintosh (Sheep wrangler)
  Cam Sutherland (Wrangler)
  Dwight Beard (Wrangler)
  Dusty Bews (Wrangler)
  Allen Bruisedhead (Wrangler)
  Wright Bruisedhead (Wrangler)
  Randy Dye (Wrangler)
  Don Gillespie (Wrangler)
  Clinton Holmes (Wrangler)
  Alby King (Wrangler)
  Dale Montgomery (Wrangler)
  Shawn Wells (Wrangler)
  Cal-B-Ques (Catering)
  Keith Church (Catering)
  Vance Wagner (Chef)
  Ryan Chatfield (Asst chef)
  Robert Demuth (Asst chef)
  Chantal Teasdale (Craft service)
  Dorothy Simpson (Asst craft service)
  Shirley Irvine (Extras craft service)
  Marty Arthur (Extras craft service)
  Joan Armstrong (Prod paramedic)
  Gino Savoia (Paramedic)
  Samantha Hughes (Paramedic)
  Darren Grout (Paramedic)
  Peter Gurr (Security coord)
  Oncore Productions (Cont dial spotting list)
Stand In: Kirk Jarrett (Stunt coord)
  Dwayne Wiley (Ennis stunt double)
  Greg Schlosser (Ennis stunt double)
  Christian Fraser (Ennis stunt double)
  Tyler Thompson (Ennis stunt double)
  Shane Pollitt (Jack stunt double)
  Greg Schlosser (Jack stunt double)
  Quentin Lowry (Jack stunt double)
  Jody Turner (Jack stunt double)
  Skyler Mantler (Lureen stunt double)
  Ken Zilka (Joe stunt double)
  Guy Bews ([Stunt] driver)
  Chyanne Hodgson (Barrel racer)
  Dave Leader (Bull fighter #1)
  Jory Vine (Bull fighter #2)
  Mark Van Tienhoven (Bull fighter #3)
  Greg Schlosser (Bull rider #1)
  Dwayne Wiley (Bull rider #2)
  Shane Pollitt (Bull dogger #1)
  T. J. Bews (Rodeo hazer)
  Lynn Ivall (Rodeo hazer)
  Scott Urquhart (Stand-in)
  Jamie Switch (Stand-in)
  Meagen MacKenzie (Stand-in)
Color Personnel: Chris Hinton (Col timer)
MPAA Rating: R
Country: United States
Language: English

Music: "The Cowboy's Lament," traditional; "Battle Hymn of the Republic," traditional, performed by Casey Smith, Darrell Crogt, Lloyd Pollock, Peter Orr and Ken Hart; "Capriccio Espangnol Op. 34," composed by Nikolaj Rimsky-Korsakov, arranged by Jim Long, performed by Philharmonica Slavonica, courtesy of Point Classic LLC.
Songs: "Water Walking Jesus," written by James McMurtry, Stephen Bruton and Annie Proulx; "Jukebox," written and performed by Ken Strange, Randall Pugh and Ron Guffnett, courtesy of Sourcerer; "Trust in Lies," written by Rick Garcia and Craig Eastman, performed by The Raven Shadows featuring Tim Ferguson; "I Won't Let You Go" and “Angel Went Up in Flames,” written, produced and performed by Gustavo Santaolalla; "No One's Gonna Love You Like Me," written and produced by Gustavo Santaolalla, performed by Mary McBride; "All Night Blues," written by Rick Garcia and Craig Eastman, performed by The Raven Shadows; "I Love Doing Texas with You," written by Tom Wesselmann, performed by Kevin Trainor, courtesy of ACM Records; "King of the Road," written and performed by Roger Miller, courtesy of Tree Productions; "A Love That Will Never Grow Old," written by Gustavo Santaolalla and Bernie Taupin, performed by Emmylou Harris courtesy of Nonesuch Records; "Quizas, Quizas, Quizas," written by Osvaldo Farres, produced by Gustavo Santaolalla, performed by Rick Garcia; "Mason Dixon Line," written and performed by Jeff Wilson, courtesy of Marc Ferrari/Mastersource; "Devil’s Right Hand," written and performed by Steve Earle; "It's So Easy," written by Buddy Holly, performed by Linda Ronstadt, courtesy of Elektra Entertainment Group by arrangement with Warner Strategic Marketing; "I Don't Want to Say Goodbye," written and produced by Gustavo Santaolalla, performed by Teddy Thompson, Teddy Thompson appears courtesy of Verve Forecast; "D-I-V-O-R-C-E," written by Bobby Braddock and Curly Putnam, performed by Tammy Wynette, courtesy of Epic Records by arrangement with Sony BMG Music; "Melissa," written by Stephen Alaimo and Gregg Allman, performed by The Allman Brothers, courtesy of Island Def Jam Music Group under license from Universal Music Enterprises; "I'll Be Gone," written and performed by Terry Gadsden and Fred Kinck-Petersen, courtesy of DeWolfe Music; "I'm Always on a Mountain When I Fall," written and performed by Merle Haggard, courtesy of Tree Productions; "Eyes of Green," written and performed by Jeff Wilson, courtesy of Marc Ferrari/Mastersource; "He Was a Friend of Mine," written by Bob Dylan, produced by Larry Campbell, performed by Willie Nelson, Willie Nelson appears courtesy of DreamWorks Records Nashville; "Maker Makes," written and performed by Rufus Wainwright, courtesy of Universal Records under license from Universal Music Enterprises.
Composer: Stephen Alaimo
  Gregg Allman
  Bobby Braddock
  Stephen Bruton
  Bob Dylan
  Steve Earle
  Craig Eastman
  Osvaldo Farres
  Terry Gadsden
  Rick Garcia
  Ron Guffnett
  Merle Haggard
  Buddy Holly
  Fred Kinck-Petersen
  Jim Long
  James McMurtry
  Roger Miller
  Annie Proulx
  Randall Pugh
  Curly Putnam
  Nikolaj Rimsky-Korsakov
  Gustavo Santaolalla
  Ken Strange
  Bernie Taupin
  Rufus Wainwright
  Tom Wesselmann
  Jeff Wilson
Source Text: Based on the short story "Brokeback Mountain" by Annie Proulx in The New Yorker (13 Oct 1997).
Authors: Annie Proulx

Copyright Claimant Copyright Date Copyright Number
Universal City Studios Productions, LLLP 21/2/2006 dd/mm/yyyy PA0001318774

PCA NO: 41600
Physical Properties: Sd: dts; Dolby Digital in selected theatres
  col: DeLuxe; Produced on Kodak Motion Picture Film; Released on Fujifilm
  Lenses/Prints: Prints by DeLuxe Toronto

Genre: Western
Sub-Genre: with songs
Subjects (Major): Cowboys
  Family relationships
  Love affairs
Subjects (Minor): Accidental death
  Mountain life
  Ranch foremen
  Rodeo performers
  Rural life
  Unrequited love

Note: In the onscreen closing credits for Brokeback Mountain special thanks is given to a number of individuals as well as towns in which the film was shot, including many towns in Canada and New Mexico. The film included clips from various television shows, including Kojak and several Canadian broadcasts of sporting events. A closing statement reads “For Shen Lee//In loving memory of Geraldine Peroni.” Another closing credit reads “Produced with the participation of the Alberta Film Development Program of The Alberta Foundation for the Arts.”
       Pulitzer Prize-winning author Annie Proulx first published the short story "Brokeback Mountain," on which the film was based, in The New Yorker in 1997. The story won a National Magazine Award, among other honors, and was later published in a collection of Proulx's short stories entitled Close Range: Wyoming Stories (New York, 1999), with a preface not included in the original The New Yorker publication. The preface, set after “Jack Twist's" death, describes a morning in which “Ennis Del Mar,” having been laid off his ranchhand job, must consider moving in with his married daughter “Alma, Jr.,” while pleasant thoughts linger from his most recent dream of “Jack.”
       In Oct 1997, as noted in the film’s presskit, Diana Ossana shared the story with her longtime writing partner, native Texan and Pulitzer Prize-winning author Larry McMurtry. Several of McMurtry's own novels have been adapted into Academy Award-winning films, including The Last Picture Show (1971, see below) and Terms of Endearment (1983) and Texasville (1990). Moved by Proulx’s ability to capture the pent-up emotions of the cowboy characters and by the work’s powerful love story, Ossana and McMurtry optioned the story from Proulx soon after, for the first time using their own money, as opposed to seeking studio funding.
       Ossana and McMurtry then wrote the screenplay together, finishing by the end of 1997. On 27 Aug 1998, DV reported that Gus Van Sant was signed to direct the picture for Sony Pictures Entertainment (SPE) and by 18 Oct 1998, a LAT article noted that Columbia Pictures, a subsidiary of SPE, had been assigned the picture. A 4 Sep 2005 NYT article noted that Van Sant approached the then sixteen-year-old Jake Gyllenhaal for a lead role. According to a 13 Dec 2005 LAT article, producer Scott Rudin also optioned the film after reading Ossana and McMurtry’s screenplay, while actor Joaquin Phoenix expressed interest in playing "Jack.” Baseline Studio Systems' website adds that Billy Crudup, Josh Hartnett and Colin Farrell had been mentioned as stars. However, Rudin and Van Sant had casting difficulties and Rudin’s option expired before the project was made. Producer Joel Schumacher also was briefly attached to the picture.
       According to a 5 Sep 2001 DV article, Academy Award-winning screenwriter and producer James Schamus optioned the screenplay in 2001 for independent production company Good Machine, whose principals were Schamus, David Linde and Ted Hope. Schamus, who had tried to get the film made earlier, approached Academy Award-winning director Ang Lee, with whom he had worked regularly on films, including Sense and Sensibility (1995), The Ice Storm (1997) and Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon (2000). However, Lee was already committed to making The Hulk (2003), which Schamus was also producing, and passed. In 2002, Universal Studios merged Good Machine with their USA Films division to form Focus Features, which was headed by Schamus and Linde. By 2003, Schamus signed Lee to direct the film for Focus Features.
       On 14 Jan 2004, DV reported that Australian Heath Ledger and Gyllenhaal were cast in the picture. When approached, Ledger committed to play the part of Ennis without having spoken or met with Lee, who noted in the presskit that Ledger’s performance was "underplayed powerfully.” The presskit also stated that Ledger and Gyllenhaal were coached to perfect their accents, which had to vary as their characters aged. Actor Randy Quaid, who played the part of “Joe Aguirre,” had previously acted in several Westerns, including roles in The Last Picture Show and Texasville . Actress Michelle Williams, who garnered attention for her supporting role as Ledger’s wife “Alma” in the film, began a relationship with Ledger during shooting of Brokeback Mountain and subsequently had a child with the actor in 2005. Some sources add Steve Eichler, Barb Mitchell, Haley Ramm and Ken Roberts to the cast.
       The film began shooting in May 2004 in Alberta, Canada, in locations including the Canadian Rockies, Cowley, Fort MacLeod and Calgary. Members of the Calgary Gay Rodeo Association advised and consulted with the production, and also appear in several scenes. According to the presskit, the film, with an estimated budget of over $12 million, was the least expensive film Lee had made since his early work, the 1994 Taiwanese film Eat Drink Man Woman .
       Although Brokeback Mountain followed the short story plot, often using dialogue from the text verbatim, there were several differences between the screenplay and the short story: In the film, the character “Cassie,” Ennis’ girl friend after his divorce, is fleshed out, as is Jack’s relationship with his in-laws. The film also includes more scenes about Jack’s homosexual affairs outside of his relationship with Ennis. In addition, the closing scene in the film includes a visit from a teenaged Alma, Jr., which is not included in the short story.
       Brokeback Mountain had a limited release on 9 Dec 2005 in Los Angeles, New York City and San Francisco, then had a platform release, opening in an increasing number of cities throughout Dec 2005 and Jan 2006. The film was extremely well received by critics, and widely publicized and attended. While many articles and press members praised the film as the first mainstream “gay cowboy” film, Ossana and McMurtry maintained that the film was essentially a love story. Many press interviews lauded Ledger and Gyllenhaal for breaking a Hollywood taboo by acting in intimate homosexual scenes, citing possible risk to their careers for the portrayal. Among the many lines often quoted in the press and sometimes lampooned by comedians soon after the picture's release was Jack’s frustrated lament to Ennis during their last trip together, “I wish I knew how to quit you.”
       In addition to being named one of AFI’s ten Movies of the Year for 2005, Brokeback Mountain garnered many accolades, including the Golden Lion Award for Best Picture at the Venice International Film Festival, where the film had its premiere in Sep 2005; New York Film Critics Circle awards for Best Picture, Best Director and Best Actor (Ledger); and the Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Picture and Best Director. In addition, Gyllenhaal was named Best Supporting Actor by the Los Angeles Film Critics Association and the National Board of Review, which also listed the film on its Top Ten list. The film also won the following Broadcast Film Critics Association Awards: Best Picture, Best Director (Lee) and tied for Best Supporting Actress (Williams) with Amy Adams in Junebug .
       Brokeback Mountain won Academy Awards for Best Directing, Original Score and Adapted Screenplay and was nominated for Best Cinematography, Actor (Ledger), Supporting Actor (Gyllenhaal), Supporting Actress (Williams) and Best Picture. Many in the press considered Brokeback Mountain the front-runner for the Oscar for Best Picture. Consequently, when the film lost to Crash (see below), some critics, among them Kenneth Turan of the LAT , wrote articles accusing the Academy members of being homophobic for their choice over Brokeback Mountain . Prouxl wrote a letter to the British newspaper The Guardian , published on 11 Mar 2006, stating not only that the ^Crash win was undeserved, but that Ledger and Gyllenhaal portrayal of characters based on “imagination and a few cold words on the page” deserved more recognition, as opposed to the Oscar winner for Best Actor, Philip Seymour Hoffman, and his portrayal of well-known and documented author Truman Capote in Capote (see below).
       In Mar 2006, Quaid, who claimed that the film was falsely represented to him as a low budget art house film as a ruse to secure him on a very low salary, sued the filmmakers for $10 million in damages. On 5 May 2006 LAT article reported that Quaid had dropped the suit after Focus Features agreed to pay him a bonus for his work on the film.
       The picture also received Golden Globe awards for Best Motion Picture—Drama, Best Director, Best Screenplay and Best Original Song. Additional Golden Globe nominations included Best Actor (Ledger) and Best Supporting Actress (Williams). Other accolades for the film included a Producers Guild award for Best Picture-Theatrical, a Best Director award to Lee by the Directors Guild of America and a Best Adapted Screenplay Award from the Writers Guild of America. The film also received Screen Actors Guild nominations for Best Performance by an Actor in a Leading Role (Ledger), Best Performance by an Actor in a Supporting Role (Gyllenhaal), Best Performance by an Actress in a Supporting Role (Williams) and Outstanding Performance by a Cast; Independent Spirit Award nominations for Best Feature, Best Director, Best Male Lead (Ledger) and Best Supporting Female (Williams).
       In 2008, at the time of Ledger's drug-related death at age twenty-nine, many obituaries singled out the actor's role in Brokeback Mountain as the greatest of his short career. In Jun 2008, the New York City Opera announced that it had commissioned composer Charles Wuorinen to write an opera based on Proulx's short story. News articles reported that it was tentatively scheduled to open in spring 2013.

Bibliographic Sources:   Date   Page
Daily Variety   27 Aug 1998.   
Daily Variety   5 Sep 2001.   
Daily Variety   14 Jan 2004.   
Daily Variety   27 Oct 2005.   
Entertainment Weekly   9 Dec 2005.   
Hollywood Reporter   21 Nov 2003.   
Hollywood Reporter   1-7 Jun 2004.   
Hollywood Reporter   3-9 Aug 2004.   
Hollywood Reporter   6-12 Sep 2005.   
Hollywood Reporter   12 Nov 2005.   
Los Angeles Times   18 Oct 1998.   
Los Angeles Times   9 Dec 2005   Calendar, p. 8.
Los Angeles Times   13 Dec 2005   Calendar, p. 1,5.
New York Times   4 Sep 2005.   
New York Times   9 Dec 2005   Arts, p. 1, 20.
The Observer (London)   18 Jan 2004.   
Variety   12 Sep 2005.   
Village Voice   21 Sep 2005.   

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