AFI Catalog of Feature Films
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The Last Samurai
Director: Edward Zwick (Dir)
Release Date:   5 Dec 2003
Premiere Information:   World premiere in Tokyo, Japan: 22 Nov 2003; Los Angeles premiere: 1 Dec 2003; New York premiere: 2 Dec 2003
Production Date:   10 Oct 2002--7 May 2003 in New Zealand
Duration (in mins):   154
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Cast: In Order of Appearance Ken Watanabe (Katsumoto)  
    Tom Cruise (Nathan Algren)  
    William Atherton (Winchester rep)  
    Chad Lindberg (Winchester rep assistant)  
    Ray Godshall Sr. (Convention hall attendee)  
    Billy Connolly (Zebulon Gant)  
    Tony Goldwyn (Colonel [Benjamin] Bagley)  
    Masato Harada (Omura)  
    Masashi Odate (Omura's companion)  
    John Koyama (Omura's bodyguard)  
    Timothy Spall (Simon Graham)  
    Schichinosuke Nakamura (Emperor Meiji)  
    Togo Igawa (General Hasegawa)  
    Satoshi Nikaido (N.C.O.)  
    Shintaro Wada (Young recruit)  
    Shin Koyamada (Nobutada)  
    Hiroyuki Sanada (Ujio)  
    Shun Sugata (Nakao)  
    Koyuki (Taka)  
    Sosuke Ikematsu (Higen)  
    Aoi Minato (Magojiro)  
    Seizo Fukumoto (Silent Samurai)  
    Shoji Yoshihara (Sword master)  
    Kosaburo Nomura IV (Kyogen player #1)  
    Takashi Noguchi (Kyogen player #2)  
    Noguchi Takayuki (Kyogen player #3)  
    Sven Toorvald (Omura's secretary)  
    Scott Wilson (Ambassador Swanbeck)  
    Yuki Matsuzaki (Soldier in street #1)  
    Mitsuyuki Oishi (Soldier in street #2)  
    Jiro Wada (Soldier in street #3)  
    Hiroshi Watanabe (Guard)  
    Yusuke Myochin (Sword master's assistant)  
  Samurai ensemble Hiroaki Amano    
    Kenta Daibo    
    Koji Fujii    
    Makoto Hashiba    
    Shimpei Horinouchi    
    Takashi Kora    
    Shane Kosugi    
    Takeshi Maya    
    Seiji Mori    
    Lee Murayama    
    Ryoichi Noguchi    
    Takeru Shimizu    
    Shinji Suzuki    
    Hisao Takeda    
    Ryoichiro Yonekura    
  Battle Corps Tomoya Abe    
    Takayuki Akaike    
    Raymond Chan    
    Chris Chin    
    Masayuki Deai    
    Taiga Etoh    
    Nobuhiro Fujita    
    Kota Fukuchi    
    Koichi Funayama    
    Furuo Geiri    
    Masayoshi Haneda    
    Mitsuki Harada    
    Takeyuki Hirai    
    Brian Ho    
    Yukihiro Hokke    
    Hiroki Hoshino    
    Kogi Inoue    
    Hidetaro Ishibashi    
    Kiichiro Ishimoto    
    Koichi Ito    
    Toshihiko Ito    
    Kiyoshi Iwata    
    Toru Kadowaki    
    Ryoga Kajiwara    
    Yuhei Kametani    
    Takanobu Kaneko    
    Nagamasa Kato    
    Yoshitake Kato    
    Yoshihiko Kawamoto    
    Yuki Kawanishi    
    Yasunari Kinbara    
    Joe Kitamura    
    Hisataka Kitaoka    
    Masato Kobayashi    
    Mitsuki Koga    
    Teishu Kohata    
    Akira Koieyama    
    Akira Kojima    
    Yasuhiro Koshi    
    Misao Kurata    
    Jiro Maeda    
    Masayuki Maekawa    
    Takashi Maeyama    
    Yoshihiro Masujima    
    Fumio Matsuki    
    Shinji Matsumoto    
    Akihito Mimatsu    
    Shusuke Mitsuyoshi    
    Giorgio Miyashita    
    Hirokazu Miyata    
    Kenji Motomiya    
    Hiroyuki Muraoka    
    Naruhito Nakada    
    Motokuni Nakagawa    
    Ginji Nakamura    
    Satoshi Nakamura    
    Fred Nakanishi    
    Yuya Nakashima    
    Kiyonori Namikawa    
    Satoshi Nikaido    
    Hidetomo Nishida    
    Akihiko Nishimura    
    Masaki Nishimura    
    Kosuke Oda    
    Toshiaki Ogawa    
    Masahiro Ogura    
    Kazuma Ohuchi    
    Tadashi Oiwa    
    James Okada    
    Daisuke Okano    
    Matt Okui    
    Mitsunori Omae    
    Atsushi Ono    
    Eijiro Ozaki    
    Shinobu Sakurai    
    Daisuke Sasagawa    
    Yuichiro Sasaki    
    Naruto Shigemi    
    Yoshinobu Shigemura    
    Kazuya Shimizu    
    Taku Shinya    
    Masashi Shirai    
    Shogo Shirasaka    
    Akihiro Soen    
    Susumu Suou    
    Takashi Taguchi    
    Ken Takagaki    
    Osamu Takahashi    
    Hiromi Takatani    
    Shusei Take    
    Teruhito Takita    
    Ryo Tanaka    
    Katsutoshi Uchibori    
    Hiroshi Uenoyama    
    Hajime Unesa    
    Shintaro Wada    
    Tadashi Watanabe    
    Kazunori Yajima    
    Masayuki Yamada    
    Hideki Yamaguchi    
    Takashi Yamaguchi    
    Keisuke Yamamoto    
    Tetsuro Yamamoto    
  Battle Extra Platoon Leaders Yasunari Akita    
    Yoshihisa Asai    
    Yasuo Hiroki    
    Toru Ishida    
    Makoto Ito    
    Yuki Maekawa    
    Hidemitsu Nakadate    
    Ryuji Nakamura    
    Motohiro Okita    
    Nobuhiro Oshima    
    Satoru Shibue    
    Masaki Sono    
    Yuki Tanifuji    
    Tomohide Tanigawa    

Summary: In 1876, a drunk and disillusioned Civil War hero, Captain Nathan Algren, haunted by his role in a massacre of innocent Native Americans, interrupts his performance at a San Francisco sideshow advertising rifles, by hysterically recounting the bloodshed and then shooting above the terrified crowd. After the show, his former commander, the rapacious Colonel Benjamin Bagley, introduces him to Omura, a Japanese businessman bent on making feudal Japan into a modern nation for his own financial gain. Omura offers Algren a lucrative job working with Bagley to mold conscripted farmers into Japan’s first modern army. Realizing his outburst at the sideshow has cost him his job and needing to feed his penchant for alcohol, Algren accepts the offer to work with Bagley and his loyal former sergeant, Zebulon Gant, in Japan, but seethes with rage against Bagley for having ordered Algren to slaughter innocent Native Americans. Arriving in Yokohama Harbor weeks later, Algren is greeted by English expatriate Simon Graham, a translator and photographer, who, after showing him Tokyo’s bustling streets, escorts the visitor to the palace for an audience with Emperor Meiji. Once there, despite Graham’s etiquette advice, Algren breaks the imperial code by boldly looking into the young emperor's eyes. Days later, during training, Algren learns that veteran Samurai Katsumoto, once a member of the Emperor's Guard and Meiji’s personal teacher, is offended by the country's modernization and plans to lead a rebellion against which the army must soon be prepared to fight. After General Hasegawa, who once fought with Katsumoto, informs Algren that Katsumoto and his Samurai are only armed with swords and arrows, not firearms, the American decides to study his enemy by reading Graham’s extensive writings on the Samurai and Bushido, their code of honor. When days later, Katsumoto attacks a railroad owned by Omura, Algren refuses to follow Omura’s orders to enter into immediate battle and attempts to prove the army’s lack of preparedness by ordering one of his men to shoot at him. The peasant shakes in fear so uncontrollably that he repeatedly misses Algren, but Bagley nevertheless insists they fight Katsumoto. The next day at the foggy, forest battleground, the soldiers hear the approaching Samurai yell and, fearing for their lives, begin shooting too early, thus allowing dozens of Samurai on horseback to expertly wield their swords, wounding most of the men. When Gant is killed, Algren rushes to his side, and, having run out of ammunition, fights several Samurai in hand-to-hand combat, despite his own wounds. Katsumoto watches as a Samurai clad in red armor prepares to deliver the American a final blow, but the prone Algren manages to spear and kill his enemy. Impressed by Algren’s skill and perseverance, Katsumoto decides to take him prisoner rather than kill him. Following his capture, Algren witnesses Hasegawa, who has surrendered to Katsumoto, perform seppuku, a ritual in which a defeated Samurai disembowels himself with his sword to maintain his honor, while another Samurai assists by decapitating the dying man to prevent prolonged pain. After they arrive at a remote mountain village, Algren is housed with Katsumoto’s sister Taka, who is forced to nurse him back to health, despite knowing that the American killed her husband Hirotaro, the warrior in red. Later, Katsumoto, finding Algren's book about military strategies to conquer the Cheyenne, begins to study his enemy, but when he questions Algren about it, the American refuses to answer. Sober and sufficiently recovered from his wounds, Algren is then allowed to walk through the village accompanied by a guard, the Silent Samurai, and observes the Samurais’ diligent daily practice of martial arts and swordsmanship. When he is called before Katsumoto and asked his name, Algren at first refuses to answer, but his curiosity about the seppuku ritual opens up a conversation between the two. After Algren learns that Taka’s husband was the red-armored Samurai he killed during battle, Katsumoto tells the guilt-ridden Algren that it was a “good death.” Although, upon returning to Taka’s house Algren is pleased to be invited to dine with family, Taka insults him in Japanese, which he does not understand, and later begs Katsumoto to remove him from her house. One day, Ujio, the most traditional of Katsumoto’s Samurai, viciously knocks Algren down with his wooden practice sword, as Taka and her young son Higen watch with satisfaction. However, as Algren, despite his lack of skill or strength, continues to stand and face Ujio, Taka and Higen begin to feel sympathy for him. During one of their short conversations, Algren tells Katsumoto that he served under Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer. Katsumoto praises the illustrious soldier, but Algren retorts that Custer was a vain and malicious murderer. After months of being treated with “mild neglect” while living among the villagers, Algren concludes that, despite their polite and quiet demeanor, the Japanese are filled with emotion and still dedicated to their emperor. Soon after, Algren, having won Taka and the Samurais’ respect, is given traditional Japanese clothing to wear and begins learning Samurai fighting and riding skills, while Higen teaches him Japanese. When one day, Algren expresses his regret to Taka for killing her husband, Taka reminds him that they were both only doing their duties. By the spring of 1877, Algren, who has finally found some peace, realizes that he has been in the village longer than anywhere else since he left home at seventeen, and dedicates himself to becoming as skilled as the Samurai. One day, during a practice fight with Ujio, Algren at first loses, but is then advised by Katsumoto’s son Nobutada to be of “no mind.” Remembering Ujio’s previous moves and honing his concentration, Algren forces his opponent to a draw, surprising all the Samurai. Later, as the town gathers to celebrate the spring planting by watching a comic play, Algren notices the guards have disappeared and, realizing they are about to be attacked, alerts Katsumoto to the danger. Cornered in Taka’s house by dozens of Omura’s warriors, Algren and Katsumoto fight side by side while Katsumoto’s men defeat the remaining attackers outside. Days later, Katsumoto explains Bushido to Algren by noting the timeless beauty of cherry blossoms nearby, and advising him to know life in every breath and face death without fear. Soon after, at the village baths, Algren’s eyes meet Taka’s and, realizing she has deep feelings for him, he thanks her for her kindness. After learning that he has been granted an audience with the emperor, Katsumoto returns Algren’s books to him, explaining that he is no longer an enemy, and they both depart for Tokyo. Algren returns to find Bagley has trained thousands of soldiers, and Omura has promised the army to the emperor if Meiji agrees to sign a new trade treaty. In an audience with Meiji, Katsumoto offers to end his life for the emperor, but when the inexperienced leader asks for advice from his former teacher, Katsumoto insists the emperor must make his own decisions. Later, Omura asks Algren to lead an attack against Katsumoto, but Algren insists he was only hired to train the army and leaves the meeting. Meanwhile, when Katsumoto meets with the council and suggests that Japan has become a “nation of whores” selling themselves to the West, the council arrests him without protest from the emperor. Learning of Katsumoto’s fate, Algren is determined to free his friend, but is attacked by Omura’s men and forced to fight them off with swords. With Graham’s help, Algren then gains entrance to Katsumoto’s cell, where he and Ujio convince Katsumoto to escape rather than kill himself. During the ensuing battle, Nobutada is mortally wounded and, after telling his father that “it is my time” to die, raises his sword and rushes into the enemy fire, allowing the others escape. Later, Katsumoto laments that the Samurai are no longer necessary in the new Japan, but Algren argues that the Samurai must fight Omura’s army to make the emperor understand that the ancient ways must not be forgotten in the wake of Japan’s modernization. Arriving at the village the next day, Algren tells Taka and Higen he will fight alongside the Samurai. When Taka informs Algren that his decision has caused Higen to fear that, in addition to losing his father, he might lose Algren as well, the soldier holds the boy in a tearful embrace. As they make battle plans to defeat Omura’s army, which is armed with machine guns, Algren suggests to Katsumoto that they must lure the enemy in close enough to engage them in sword battle. On 25 May 1877, the day of battle, as Algren prepares himself to greet death, Taka offers him her husband’s suit of armor and slowly undresses and kisses Algren. Later, Katsumoto gives him a handcrafted sword with the inscription “I belong to the warrior in whom the old ways have joined the new.” Later, as they approach the battlefield, Algren hands his notebooks to Graham, who positions himself high above the soldiers to document the battle with his camera. After the first round of cannon fire from Omura’s men, the Samurai light fires to cover their retreat with smoke, luring all of Omura’s infantry into marching behind a hill where the Samurai archers shoot and kill hundreds of the soldiers. After a round of hand-to-hand combat between bayonets and swords, Ujio leads an attack on horseback, but is soon killed. Suddenly a bugle is sounded, signifying the army’s retreat. Realizing that two more regiments will be brought in, Algren tells Katsumoto that the Samurai will now be forced to march into Omura’s machine guns. Lining up his remaining men on the battlefield, Katsumoto lets out a war cry and leads the suicidal charge with Algren at his side. The westernized Omura is incredulous that the defeated Samurai will not surrender despite their losses. Bagley, regaining his sense of honor, mounts his horse and rides into battle to meet his enemy and face his certain death. The soldiers then commence firing the new and powerful Howitzer machine guns, which litter the plain with dead Samurai, injuring both Algren and Katsumoto. Realizing that Katsumoto is mortally wounded, Algren assists his friend in his final courageous act, that of seppuku. As he dies, Katsumoto watches nearby cherry blossoms float through the air and whispers to Algren, “they are all perfect.” Filled with humility at the passing of so great a hero, Omura’s men kneel reverentially in tribute. Days later, Algren interrupts the emperor only moments before he is to sign an American trade treaty. Kneeling before Meiji, Algren offers him Katsumoto’s sword, asks that he remember what his ancestors died for and offers to end his own life at the emperor’s command. Having finally embraced Katsumoto’s advice, the emperor announces that he will not sign the treaty, because it is not in the best interest of his people. Algren then returns to the village, where he is reunited with Taka and her children to begin a new life. 

Production Company: Samurai Pictures, LLC  
  Cruise/Wagner Productions  
  Radar Pictures  
  Bedford Falls Company  
Production Text: An Edward Zwick Film
Distribution Company: Warner Bros. Pictures  
Director: Edward Zwick (Dir)
  Gary Capo (2d unit dir, splinter unit)
  Nilo Otero (1st asst dir)
  Mathew Dunne (1st asst dir, splinter unit)
  Allen Kupetsky (2d asst dir)
  Paul Sullivan (2d asst dir, splinter unit)
  Edward Licht (2d 2d asst dir)
  Jack Steinberg (2d 2d asst dir)
  Andrew Ward (2d 2d asst dir)
  Frank Kostenko (2d 2d asst dir)
  Amy Wilkins (Addl 2d asst dir)
  Emma Cross (Addl 2d asst dir)
  Geoff Dibben (Key off set 2d asst dir)
  Guy Campbell (Off set 2d asst dir)
  Joanna Pearce (Off set addl 2d asst dir)
  Louise Boothby (Off set 3rd asst dir)
  Eddie Thorne (3rd asst dir, splinter unit)
  Del Chatterton (Off set addl 3rd asst dir)
  Drew Bailey (Addl 3rd asst dir)
  Gene Keelan (Addl 3rd asst dir)
  Kazmer Harangozo (Addl 3rd asst dir)
Producer: Marshall Herskovitz (Prod)
  Edward Zwick (Prod)
  Tom Cruise (Prod)
  Paula Wagner (Prod)
  Scott Kroopf (Prod)
  Tom Engelman (Prod)
  Ted Field (Exec prod)
  Richard Solomon (Exec prod)
  Vincent Ward (Exec prod)
  Charles Mulvehill (Exec prod)
  Graham J. Larson (Assoc prod)
  Michael Doven (Assoc prod)
  Yoko Narahashi (Assoc prod)
Writer: John Logan (Scr)
  Edward Zwick (Scr)
  Marshall Herskovitz (Scr)
  John Logan (Story)
Photography: John Toll (Dir of photog)
  Gary Capo (Dir of photog, splinter unit)
  Mike Thomas ("A" cam op)
  Peter McCaffrey ("B" cam/Steadicam op)
  Greg Lundsgaard ("B" cam/Steadicam op, Los Angeles unit)
  Leigh MacKenzie ("B" cam op, splinter unit)
  Darrin Keough ("C" cam op)
  Calum McFarlane ("D" cam op)
  John Mahaffie (VFX cam op)
  Christopher Toll ("A" cam 1st asst)
  Michael Fauntleroy ("A" cam 1st asst, splinter unit)
  Tommy Klines ("B" cam/Steadicam 1st asst)
  Tov Belling ("B" cam 1st asst, splinter unit)
  Brett Matthews ("C" cam 1st asst)
  Richard Lacy ("D" cam 1st asst)
  Luke Thomas (VFX cam 1st asst)
  Jeff Pelton ("A" cam 2d asst)
  Jasmine Yuen-Carrucan ("A" cam 2d asst, splinter unit)
  Louise Williams ("B" cam 2d asst)
  Nobuhiro Wakabayashi ("B" cam 2d asst, Japan unit)
  Jock Fyfe ("B" cam 2d asst, splinter unit)
  Phil Smith ("C" cam asst)
  Ulrich 'Olly' Raymond (2d cam asst)
  Raymond S. Milazzo Jr. (2d asst cam)
  Andrew McGeorge (VFX cam 2d asst)
  John Bonnin (Libra head)
  Steve Rogers (Wescam)
  David James (Still photog)
  Michael Taylor (Video assist)
  Mark Alston (Video asst)
  Dan Moore (Video assist, Los Angeles unit)
  Luis Olivares (Video assist, splinter unit)
  Bram Tulloch (Video assist/Transmitter tech, splinter unit)
  Mick Morris (Gaffer)
  Gary Hill (Rigging gaffer)
  R. Michael De Chellis (Rigging gaffer, Los Angeles unit)
  Iain 'Strapper' Mathieson (Best boy)
  Jay Munro (Best boy)
  Simon Lythgoe (NZ best boy)
  Andy M. Nelson (Rigging best boy elec, Los Angeles unit)
  Don Easy (Facilities lighting)
  David Nichols (Key grip)
  Al Laverde (Key grip, Los Angeles unit)
  Terry Fraser (Key grip, splinter unit)
  Brett McDowell (Dolly grip)
  Victor Shelehov (Dolly grip, Los Angeles unit)
  Damien Kwockson ("B" dolly grip)
  Bill Leslie ("B" dolly grip, Los Angeles unit)
  Paul Reddin (Rigging grip)
  Dana Baker (Best boy grip, Los Angeles unit)
  Richard 'Blair' Muschamp (Luna crane op)
  Sal Alvarez (Cam loader, Los Angeles unit)
  Naoki Noda (Loader, Japan unit)
  Randy Woodside (Chief lighting tech, Los Angeles unit)
  Erik Bernstein (Asst chief lighting tech, Los Angeles unit)
  Rin Takada (Cable, Japan unit)
  Chapman/Leonard Studio Equipment, Inc. (Cam, cranes and dollies)
Art Direction: Lilly Kilvert (Prod des)
  Chris Burian-Mohr (Supv art dir)
  Jess Gonchor (Lead art dir)
  Kim Sinclair (Art dir)
  Elizabeth Flaherty (Asst art dir)
  Martha Johnston (Asst art dir, Los Angeles unit)
  John Berger (Asst art dir, Los Angeles unit)
  Harry Otto (Asst art dir, Los Angeles unit)
  Tristan Bourne (Asst art dir, Japan unit)
  Jiro Koga (Asst art dir, Japan unit)
  Christopher Glass (Storyboard artist)
  Kevin MacCarthy (Storyboard artist, Los Angeles unit)
  Peter Ramsey (Storyboard artist, Los Angeles unit)
  J. C. Brown (Graphic artist)
  Cedar McClure (Art dept coord)
  Lori A. Lopes (Art dept coord, Los Angeles unit)
  Kay Kimura (Art dept coord, Japan unit)
  Ted Haigh (Graphic des, Los Angeles unit)
  Miwako Morita (Art dept prod asst, Japan unit)
Film Editor: Steven Rosenblum (Ed)
  Victor Dubois (Ed)
  Cynthia Thornton (Assoc ed)
  Todd Zongker (1st Avid asst ed)
  Susan Vaill (Avid asst)
  Jenny Hicks (Asst film ed)
  Penny Lee Hallin (Asst film ed)
  Pablo Prietto (Asst film ed)
  David Ziek (Asst film ed)
  Greg Lindsay (Projectionist)
  John Valentine (Projectionist)
  Tam Webster (Projectionist)
  Kylie Mather (Ed staff asst)
  Elias Jeremiah Moor (Ed staff asst)
  Jan Yarbrough (Video op/Online supv, splinter unit)
  Mo Henry (Negative cutter, splinter unit)
Set Decoration: Philip Thomas (Set des)
  Michael Smale (Set des)
  Samuel J. Storey (Set des)
  John P. Goldsmith (Set des, Los Angeles unit)
  Anthony D. Parillo (Set des, Los Angeles unit)
  Roy Barnes (Set des, Los Angeles unit)
  James Bayliss (Set des, Los Angeles unit)
  Adrian Gorton (Set des, Los Angeles unit)
  Ann Harris (Set des, Los Angeles unit)
  Patte Strong-Lord (Set des, Los Angeles unit)
  Lori A. Lopes (Set dec/Props coord)
  Gretchen Rau (Set dec)
  Kathy Lucas (Asst set dec)
  Phred Palmer (Buyer)
  Kathy Rosen (Buyer, Los Angeles unit)
  Jon Bush (Lead, Los Angeles unit)
  Nick Weir (Lead, New Zealand unit)
  Patrick Cassidy (Lead)
  Trevor Barber (Lead)
  Ronald Denny (Lead)
  George Ferguson (Lead)
  Jed Hooker (Lead)
  Marc Larsen (Lead)
  Jon Tack (Lead)
  Brendan Treacy (Lead)
  John Watson (Lead)
  Steven Brennan (On-set dresser)
  William Chalk (2d on-set dresser)
  William Acedo (Set dresser, Los Angeles unit)
  Peter Angles (Set dresser, Los Angeles unit)
  Jamie Boyce (Set dresser, Los Angeles unit)
  Oscar Delgadillo (Set dresser, Los Angeles unit)
  John Louis Gomez (Set dresser, Los Angeles unit)
  Pierre Gonzalez (Set dresser, Los Angeles unit)
  Casi Heath (Set dresser, Los Angeles unit)
  Brock Helfer (Set dresser, Los Angeles unit)
  Scott Jones (Set dresser, Los Angeles unit)
  John Markovich (Set dresser, Los Angeles unit)
  Lisa Ozanne (Set dresser, Los Angeles unit)
  Mark Palmer (Set dresser, Los Angeles unit)
  Joseph Pinkos (Set dresser, Los Angeles unit)
  Trevor Rudolph (Set dresser, Los Angeles unit)
  Jim Samson (Set dresser, Los Angeles unit)
  Joanna Gilliam Venezky (Set dresser, Los Angeles unit)
  Gregory J. Wilkinson (Set dresser, Los Angeles unit)
  Seiji Honjo (Set dresser, Japan unit)
  Tomofumi Nishida (Set dresser, Japan unit)
  Hiroki Yamaguchi (Set dresser, Japan unit)
  Shane Down (Swing gang)
  Peter Newland (Swing gang)
  Graeme Sang (Swing gang)
  David Topping (Swing gang)
  Nathan Wipatene (Swing gang)
  Alexandra Bain (Swing gang)
  David Casey (Swing gang)
  Byron Connew (Swing gang)
  Neil Testa (Swing gang)
  David Gulick (Prop master)
  Al Eisenmann II (3rd prop master, Los Angeles unit)
  Peter Clarke (Asst prop master)
  Parker Swanson (Asst prop master)
  Geoff Ellis (Asst prop master)
  Yasuo Kamata (Japanese prop master)
  Shinobu Oda (Japanese prop master)
  Eric 'Fish' Fishman (Prop asst, Los Angeles unit)
  Michiko Inoue (Prop asst, Japan unit)
  Kazunori Makiguchi (Prop asst, Japan unit)
  Masayuki Tamura (Prop asst, Japan unit)
  Stephanie Waldron (Greens foreman)
  Joshua Patterson (Greens foreman)
  William 'Rob' Chalk (Greens foreman, Japan unit)
  Frank McEldowney (Head greensman, Los Angeles unit)
  Ronald Baratie (Greens foreman, Los Angeles unit)
  Steve Rice (Greens foreman, Los Angeles unit)
  Mike McCombe (Lead greensman, Japan unit)
  Paula Carswell (Greensperson)
  Murray Hartley (Greensperson)
  Basil McGahan (Greensperson)
  Jeffrey Shortt (Greensperson)
  Michael White (Greensperson)
  Simon Lowe (Standby greensperson, splinter unit)
  Neil Kirkland (Const supv)
  Nik Novis (Const mgr)
  Dave Degaetano (Const coord)
  Javier Carillo (Const gen foreman)
  Kevin Butson (Foreman)
  William 'Winks' Schmidt (Foreman)
  Tom Brown (Paint supv)
  Larry Laurent (Paint foreman)
  Stacy Clinger (Paint foreman)
  Jim Oxford (Illustrator, Los Angeles unit)
  Andrew Jones (Model maker, Los Angeles unit)
  Paul Ford (Set dec foreman, Los Angeles unit)
  Paul Stanwyck (Lead scenic)
  Rick Broderman (2d scenic)
  Brian Sobaski (Standby painter)
  Rudy Bonner (Standby painter, Japan unit)
Costumes: Ngila Dickson (Cost des)
  Janis McEwan (Cost supv)
  Charlene Amateau (Cost supv)
  Alexandria Forster (Cost supv)
  Akira Fukuda (Cost supv, Japan unit)
  Chloe Smith (Cost mgr)
  Phee Phanshell (Cost prod coord)
  Kendall Errair (Mr. Cruise's cost)
  Bob Buck (Cost coord)
  Liz McGregor (Villager cost coord)
  Hilary Niederer (Civilian cost coord)
  Lee-Ann Mercer (Army cost coord)
  Sophia Cook (Cost assoc)
  Louise Dove (Illustrator)
  Daniel Lloyd (Illustrator)
  Deirdre McKessar (Head buyer/Cost props researcher)
  Tulsi Cullen (Cost asst)
  Rachel Little (Cost asst)
  Sarah Shepherd (Cost asst)
  Takayuki Mizoguchi (Cost asst, Japan unit)
  Mitsuro Ohtsuka (Cost asst, Japan unit)
  Izumi Satoh (Cost asst, Japan unit)
  Paula Coulthard (Cost props supv)
  Robyn Forster (Cost props supv)
  Roger Murray (Cost props head tech)
  Emma Petterson (Chain mail assembly)
  Nicola Petry (Chain mail assembly)
  Saskia Leek (Chain mail assembly)
  Matt Johnstone (Chain mail assembly)
  Nicola Rush (Chain mail assembly)
  Olivia Johnson (Chain mail assembly)
  James Cottle (Chain mail assembly)
  Anna Wallis (Jeweller)
  Joanna Campbell (Jeweller)
  Jonathan Hopcroft (Jeweller)
  Sean O'Reilly (Jeweller)
  Munehisa Sengoku (Emperor's cost adv)
  Mari-an Ceo (Key cost)
  Amy Jo Hoppenfeld (Key cost)
  Grace Kelly Lambert (Cost)
  Natasha Walsh (Cost)
  Sian Evans (Cost)
  Cynthia Morrill (Cost)
  Lucinda Campbell (Cost)
  Kate Corrigan (Set cost)
  Bob Moore (Set cost)
  Lorraine Crossman (Set cost)
  Annie Miller (Set cost)
Music: Hans Zimmer (Mus/Mus score arr and programmed by)
  Geoff Zanelli (Mus score arr and programmed by)
  Blake Neely (Mus score arr and programmed by)
  Clever Trevor Morris (Mus score arr and programmed by/Mus score consultant)
  Bruce Fowler (Orch)
  Suzette Moriarty (Orch)
  Ladd McIntosh (Orch)
  Blake Neely (Cond)
  Marc Streitenfeld (Mus ed)
  Del Spiva (Asst mus ed)
  Alan Meyerson (Score rec/Score mixed by)
  Slamm Andrews (Score rec)
  Clever Trevor Morris (Mus score consultant)
  Melissa Muik (Mus score consultant)
  Mark Wherry (Mus score consultant)
  Dolores Clay (Musician)
  Craig Eastman (Musician)
  Steve Erdody (Musician)
  Benjamin Hale (Musician)
  June Kuramoto (Musician)
  Emil Richards (Musician)
  Bill Shozan Schultz (Musician)
  Fred Selden (Musician)
Sound: Jeff Wexler (Prod sd mixer)
  Don Coufal (Boom op)
  Cesar Aguirre (Utility sd tech, Los Angeles unit)
  Andy Nelson (Re-rec mixer)
  Anna Behlmer (Re-rec mixer)
  Michael Kamper (Sd des)
  Jon Title (Sd des)
  Mark P. Stoeckinger (Supv sd ed)
  Alan Rankin (Sd ed)
  Christopher Assells (Sd ed)
  Bruce Tannis (Sd ed)
  Dino Dimuro (Sd ed)
  Ben Wilkins (Sd ed)
  Victor Ennis (1st asst sd ed)
  Paul Flinchbaugh (Asst sd ed)
  Laura Harris (Dial ed)
  David A. Cohen (Dial ed)
  Kerry Dean Williams (Supv ADR ed)
  Kelly Oxford (ADR ed)
  Anna MacKenzie (ADR ed)
  Michelle Pazer (ADR ed)
  Caitlin McKenna (ADR ed)
  Mark Ormandy (Addl audio)
  John Paul Fasal (Addl audio)
  John Roesch (Foley artist)
  Alyson Dee Moore (Foley artist)
  Jeffery Wilhoit (Foley artist)
  James Morriana (Foley artist)
  Craig Jeager (Supv foley ed)
  Bob Behr (Foley ed)
  Frank Smathers (Foley ed)
  Mary Jo Lang (Foley mixer)
  Nerses Gezalyan (Foley mixer)
  Charleen Richards-Steeves (ADR mixer)
  Robert Deschane (ADR mixer)
  Greg Steele (ADR mixer)
  Michael Miller (ADR mixer)
Special Effects: Jeffrey A. Okun (Visual eff supv)
  William Mesa (Visual eff supv, Flash Film Works)
  John P. Mesa (Visual eff co-supv, Flash Film Works)
  Raymond McIntyre Jr. (Visual eff supv, Pixel Magic)
  Tim Crosbie (VFX supv, Rising Sun Pictures)
  Benoit 'Ben' Girard (Facility visual eff supv, Digital Dimension)
  Dan Novy (Visual eff tech supv, Flash Film Works)
  Christov Effects & Design, Inc. (Visual eff des and matte paintings)
  John Coats (Matte painting supv, Flash Film Works)
  Neil Greenberg (Visual eff ed)
  Lincoln Kupchak (Visual eff ed, Flash Film Works)
  Emily Wallin (Visual eff ed, Flash Film Works)
  Tom Boland (Visual eff prod)
  Jeffrey White (Visual eff prod, Flash Film Works)
  George Macri (Visual eff prod, Pixel Magic)
  Jessica Franks (Visual eff asst coord)
  Daryl Habraken (Visual eff prod asst)
  Romulo Adriano Jr. (Visual eff coord)
  Digital Dimension (Visual eff)
  Digital Film Works, Inc. (Addl visual eff)
  Flash Film Works (Visual eff)
  Pixel Magic (Visual eff)
  Rising Sun Pictures (Visual eff)
  VCE.COM (Visual eff)
  Paul Lombardi (Spec eff supv)
  John D. Milinac (Spec eff foreman)
  Robert Willard (Spec eff foreman)
  Alistair Anderson (Spec eff tech)
  Dave Booth (Spec eff tech)
  Dean Bushby (Spec eff tech)
  Karl Chisholm (Spec eff tech)
  Dean Clarke (Spec eff tech)
  Peter Cleveland (Spec eff tech)
  Geoff Curtis (Spec eff tech)
  John Fagan (Spec eff tech)
  Doug Falconer (Spec eff tech)
  Oliver Gee (Spec eff tech)
  Scott Harens (Spec eff tech)
  Iain Hutton (Spec eff tech)
  Darian Lumsden (Spec eff tech)
  Mike McDonald (Spec eff tech)
  Phil McLaren (Spec eff tech)
  John Mowat (Spec eff tech)
  Dean Powell (Spec eff tech)
  Dominic Taylor (Spec eff tech)
  Paul Verrall (Spec eff tech)
  William Wallace (Spec eff tech)
  Warwick Yin (Spec eff tech)
  Peter Zivkovic (Spec eff tech)
  Joel Blanchard (Spec eff tech)
  Thomas H. Brown (Spec eff tech)
  Thomas 'Mike' Craven (Spec eff tech)
  Lenny Dalrymple (Spec eff tech)
  Steven Dearth (Spec eff tech)
  Kim Derry (Spec eff tech)
  Terry Erickson (Spec eff tech)
  Guy Feldman (Spec eff tech)
  James K. Fredburg (Spec eff tech)
  Scott Garcia (Spec eff tech)
  Daniel Gilmore (Spec eff tech)
  Jeremy Hays (Spec eff tech)
  Brent Herrmann (Spec eff tech)
  Jonathan Kombrinck (Spec eff tech)
  Joseph Livolsi (Spec eff tech)
  Eduardo Lozano (Spec eff tech)
  Ron Mathews (Spec eff tech)
  Scott Mattson (Spec eff tech)
  Guy Menanno (Spec eff tech)
  David Peterson (Spec eff tech)
  Rick Peterson (Spec eff tech)
  Ken Rudell (Spec eff tech)
  Duane Russel (Spec eff tech)
  Charles Schmitz (Spec eff tech)
  Michael Todd (Spec eff tech)
  Yukiyoshi Shimizu (Spec eff tech, Japan unit)
  Shigemori Shigeta (Spec eff tech, Japan unit)
  Creature Effects (Hero horse made by)
  Moving Target (Title des, splinter unit)
  Pacific Title (Opticals, splinter unit)
  Jerome Morin (Facility prod, Digital Dimension)
  Leandro Visconti (Head compositor, Digital Dimension)
  David Fogg (Compositing supv, Flash Film Works)
  Ken Stranahan (Digital compositor, Flash Film Works)
  Patrick Flanagan (Digital artist, Pixel Magic)
  John R. McConnell (Digital artist, Pixel Magic)
  Brad Moylan (Digital artist, Pixel Magic)
  Kevin Struckman (Digital artist, Pixel Magic)
  Richard Kratt (Digital artist, Pixel Magic)
  Tim Everitt (Anim supv, Flash Film Works)
  Don Waller (Character anim supv, Flash Film Works)
  Tatjana Bozinovski (Paint/Rotoscope supv, Flash Film Works)
Make Up: Lois Burwell (Makeup dept head)
  Kenny Myers (Key makeup artist)
  Maggie Elliot (Makeup artist)
  Chrisina 'Tina' Harrelson (Makeup artist)
  Greg Nelson (Makeup artist)
  Richard Snell (Makeup artist)
  Jennifer Barrons (Makeup/Hair coord)
  Polly Earnshaw (Lead crowd makeup artist)
  Zoltan Elek (Crowd makeup artist)
  Perry 'Mike' Germain (Crowd makeup artist)
  Ron Snyder (Crowd makeup artist)
  Michael Krehl (Crowd makeup artist/Fittings)
  Kenneth Wensevic (Crowd makeup artist, Japan unit)
  Dawn Armstrong (Addl makeup)
  Michele Barber (Addl makeup)
  Corey Castellano (Addl makeup)
  Megan Dwyer (Addl makeup)
  Katalin Elek (Addl makeup)
  Rick Findlater (Addl makeup)
  Annette Hardy (Addl makeup)
  Louise Harris (Addl makeup)
  Jennifer Hegarty (Addl makeup)
  Catherine Heys (Addl makeup)
  Pauline Heys (Addl makeup)
  Denise Kum (Addl makeup)
  Davina Lamont (Addl makeup)
  Fiona Leach (Addl makeup)
  Deborah Moore (Addl makeup)
  Wendy Nowell-Usticke (Addl makeup)
  Suzie Plume (Addl makeup)
  Kerryn Roberts (Addl makeup)
  Jenny Sharpe (Addl makeup)
  Rick Stratton (Addl makeup)
  Julia Wilson (Addl makeup)
  Yoshiko Suzuki (Makeup asst, Japan unit)
  Conor O'Sullivan (Spec makeup eff dept head)
  James Allen (Spec makeup eff coord)
  Andrew Kelly (Sr animatronic tech)
  Sean Foot (Prosthetic tech)
  Kath Raynor (Prosthetic tech)
  Thomas Blake (Sculptor)
  Andrew Hunt (Sculptor)
  Duncan Jarman (Sculptor)
  Giacomo Iovino (Sculptor/Moulder)
  Robin Schoonraad (Moulder)
  Martha Fein (Prosthetic painter)
  Matthew Smith (Prosthetic makeup)
  Janice Alexander (Hair dept head)
  Terry Baliel (Key hair stylist)
  Karen Myers (Hairstylist)
  Carol Pershing (Hairstylist)
  Kimberly Spiteri (Hairstylist)
  Colleen La Baff (Hairstylist)
  Randa Squillacote (Hair stylist, Japan unit)
  Terry Jarvis (Wig maker)
  Stephen Rose (Lead crowd hair stylist)
  Annie Townsend (Crowd hair stylist)
  Craig Argent (Crowd hair stylist)
  Shirley Dolle (Addl hair)
  Sheree Gillespie (Addl hair)
  Hitomi Golba (Addl hair)
  Iain Guthrie (Addl hair)
  Warren Hanneman (Addl hair)
  Teressa Hill (Addl hair)
  Frankie Karena (Addl hair)
  Shawn McKay (Addl hair)
  Kimi Messina (Addl hair)
  Liz Michie (Addl hair)
  Kelly Mitchell (Addl hair)
  Angela Mooar (Addl hair)
  Alison Rutherford (Addl hair)
  Laura Schiavo (Addl hair)
  Loulia Sheppard (Addl hair)
  Shannon Soucie (Addl hair)
  Zeljka Stanin (Addl hair)
  Roddy Stayton (Addl hair)
  Terrie Velaquez (Addl hair)
  Noeline White (Addl hair)
  Georgina Williams (Addl hair)
  Colin Wyatt (Addl hair)
  Masayo Ichikawa (Hair asst, Japan unit)
  Yoko Ishikawa (Hair asst, Japan unit)
Production Misc: Victoria Thomas (Casting)
  Yoko Narahashi (Casting, Japan)
  Liz Mullane (Casting, New Zealand)
  Amy Pope (Extras casting)
  Mariann Lee (Extras casting)
  Amanda Duncan (Extras casting asst)
  Kim Coleman (Casting assoc)
  Nicole Abellera (Casting asst)
  Ken Tokuhiro (Asst casting, Japan unit)
  Manabu Yamada (Casting asst, Japan unit)
  Kevin De La Noy (Unit prod mgr)
  Charles Mulvehill (Unit prod mgr)
  Ray Quinlan (Unit prod mgr, Japan unit)
  Mitsuyuki Kousaka (Prod mgr, Shochiku, Japan unit)
  Jayne-Ann Tenggren (Scr supv)
  Lisa Vick (Scr supv, splinter unit)
  Robert "Rock" Galotti (Firing weapons coord)
  Donte Gentile (Firing weapons specialist)
  Vincent Flaherty (Firing weapons specialist)
  Gunner Ashford (Armorer)
  C. Robert "Bob" Gillmor (Cannon master)
  Billy "Butch" Frank (Cannoneer)
  Doug Sloan (Cannoneer)
  Damon Taylor (Cannoneer)
  Peter White (Head horse wrangler)
  Bex Watts (Key wrangler/Horse trainer)
  Graham Dolan (Horse trainer)
  Tracey Vickers (Horse wrangler)
  Graeme Andrews (Horse wrangler)
  Sharon Bardsley (Horse wrangler)
  Bridget Brewer (Horse wrangler)
  Eileen Gopperth (Horse wrangler)
  Karen Kemsley (Horse wrangler)
  Duncan McNaughton (Horse wrangler)
  Jacquilyn Penn (Horse wrangler)
  Lynley Schollum (Horse wrangler)
  Lindsay Tapp (Horse wrangler)
  Tracey Weaver (Horse wrangler)
  Phil Smith (Horse wrangler, Los Angeles unit)
  Stephen Old (Horse dept coord)
  Jasmin Vette (Animal trainer)
  Jabe Hura (Asst animal trainer)
  Doug Katau (Oxen trainer)
  Melvin Mete (Oxen wrangler)
  Rosie Miles (Small animal coord/Trainer)
  Mathew Ward (Small animal coord/Trainer)
  Randy Miller (Tiger provided by)
  Predators in Action, Inc. (Tiger provided by)
  Richard Wood (Fabrication coord)
  Stan Blackwell (1st unit coord)
  Steve Ingram (2d unit coord)
  Graham Nixon (Blacksmith)
  Warren Green (Blacksmith)
  Mitchell Dauterive (Prod supv)
  Anne Bruning (Prod supv)
  Kyoko Kageyama (Prod supv)
  Carol Kim (Pre-prod supv)
  Graham J. Larson (Post-prod supv)
  Lil Heyman (Prod coord)
  Page Rosenberg-Marvin (Prod coord)
  Lisa Matsukawa (Prod coord, Japan unit)
  Arwen Munro (Prod coord, splinter unit)
  Geoff Pattison (Post-prod coord)
  Jill Soper (Asst prod coord)
  Susan Parker (Asst prod coord)
  Jennifer Webb (Asst prod coord)
  Stacy Parker (Asst prod coord)
  Heather Moses (Asst prod coord)
  Cindy Kahu (Prod secy)
  Samata Preston (Prod secy)
  Deborah Alleck (Prod secy)
  Mark Kelly (Prod secy)
  Emi Fukuda (Prod secy, Japan unit)
  Helene Takacs (Prod staff asst)
  Thea Govorko (Prod staff asst)
  Jack Irving (Prod staff asst)
  Tyson Fitzgerald (Prod staff asst)
  Migiwa Ozawa (Prod staff asst)
  Nicholas Stankevich (Staff asst)
  David Passman (Staff asst)
  Moanike'ala Nakamoto (Staff asst)
  Bettina Lynch (Staff asst)
  Kristian Eek (Prod asst)
  Nicky Laguna (Prod asst)
  Pippa Radka Illovska (Prod asst)
  Christopher Toll (Prod asst)
  Minori James (Prod asst)
  Phillip Shaw (Prod asst)
  Will Waru (On set prod asst, splinter unit)
  Lyena Nomura (Set prod asst/Translator)
  Jessica Franks (Set prod asst)
  Nigel Nally (Set prod asst)
  Michael Short (Set prod asst)
  Mikey Svitak (Set prod asst)
  Dave Williams (Set prod asst)
  Josh Ernstrom (Set prod asst)
  Jason Cox (Set prod asst)
  Lee Reynolds (Set prod asst)
  Erin Wilson (Set prod asst)
  Ryan Quinlan (Set prod asst, Japan unit)
  Marc Siegel (Office prod asst)
  Stacy Solomon (Office prod asst)
  Taka "Bart" Kawatsu (Prod office asst, Japan unit)
  Joey Cruz Manalang (Prod office asst, Japan unit)
  Shikiho Yanagida (Prod office asst, Japan unit)
  Josh Breslow (Post prod asst)
  Ken Ryan (Prod accountant)
  Mayda Renizzi-Holt (Asst prod accountant)
  Greg Eby (New Zealand loc accountant)
  Korin A. Tarin (Japan loc accountant)
  Akira Fukuda (Japan asst loc accountant)
  Kami Calevro (Accounting asst)
  Charlie Harrington (Loc mgr)
  Richard Davis (Loc mgr)
  Peta Sinclair (Key asst loc mgr)
  Roger "Podge" Preston (Asst loc mgr)
  Evan Peller (Key loc asst)
  Sala Baker (Loc asst)
  Rachel Bracegirdle (Loc asst)
  Ollie Chadwick (Loc asst)
  Ngaia Toroa Croyden (Loc asst)
  John Fenton (Loc asst)
  Kirsty Fromont (Loc asst)
  Alan Halcombe (Loc asst)
  Sharlene Heys (Loc asst)
  Mana Hira-Davis (Loc asst)
  George Marino (Loc asst)
  Lance McCrae (Loc asst)
  Mike McGregor (Loc asst)
  Eric Napier (Loc asst)
  Sharon Ninness (Loc asst)
  Tam Norris (Loc asst)
  Wok O'Keeffe (Loc asst)
  Neena Rae (Loc asst)
  Richard Riwaka (Loc asst)
  Elton Whakatutu (Loc asst)
  Clayton White (Loc asst)
  David Cole (Loc asst, Japan unit)
  Kazumasa Hayakawa (Loc asst, Japan unit)
  Yukihisa Takagaki (Loc asst, Japan unit)
  Takanori Tsubouchi (Loc liaison, Japan unit)
  Brian Hulse (Asst loc mgr, Japan unit)
  Steven Rigamat (Loc foreman)
  Andrew Buckley (Health & safety coord)
  Mike Hayden (Paramedic)
  Scott Hollingshead (Paramedic)
  Mark Gabites (Paramedic)
  Chris Taylor (Paramedic)
  Dr. Kenji Cho (Japanese doctor)
  Kinu McCarthy (Japanese set nurse)
  Ayako Nakayama (Japanese set nurse)
  Yoshiko Yanase (Japanese set nurse)
  Madoka Mori (Nurse, Himeji, Japan unit)
  Mari Imagawa (Nurse, Kyoto, Japan unit)
  Joe Rystrom (Key set medic)
  Roy Irwin (Set medic)
  Samuel M. Cobb (Const medic)
  Sgt. Maj. James D. Dever (Military tech adv)
  Daniel King (Asst military tech adv)
  George Tsukahira (Japanese tech adv)
  Takeyama Yo (Project consulant)
  Mark Schilling (Project consulant)
  Troy Putney (Asst to Mr. Zwick)
  Josh Gummersall (Asst to Mr. Herskovitz)
  Sue Frey (Exec asst to Mr. Cruise)
  Jennifer Hammon (Personal asst to Mr. Cruise)
  Grady Lee (Exec asst to Ms. Wagner)
  Gunner Clancy (Asst to Ms. Wagner)
  E. Michael Stankevich (Asst to Mr. Mulvehill)
  Wonder Fortune Serra (Asst to Mr. Kroopf)
  Alison Haskovec (Asst to Mr. Engelman)
  Jason Novak (Asst to Mr. Solomon)
  Riki Otaki (Asst to Mr. Watanabe)
  Dan Romero (Transportation coord)
  Vic Cuccia (Transportation capt)
  Reg Gibson (Transportation capt)
  Michael Sean Ryan (Transportation capt)
  Cesar Angebaldo (Transportation capt)
  Doug Weaver (Spec transportation)
  Benson Jones (Spec transportation)
  For Stars Catering (Catering by)
  The Flying Trestles (Addl catering by)
  Carl Barnes (Caterer, Japan unit)
  Rachel Musprave (Caterer, Japan unit)
  Richard Shaw (Caterer, Japan unit)
  Michael Kehoe (Craft service)
  Orion Archung (Craft service)
  Richard Hamel (Facilities asst)
  Cheryl Brown (Facilities asst)
  Lisa Chu Dietze (DGA trainee)
  Shochiku Company, Ltd. (Japan prod services)
Stand In: Nick Powell (Stunt coord)
  Melissa R. Stubbs (Asst stunt coord)
  Lauro Chartrand (Co-fight arr)
  Casey O'Neill (Stunt double)
  Al Eisenmann (Stunt double)
  Michael Li (Stunt double)
  Larry Lam (Stunt double)
  Paul Wu (Stunt double)
  Danny Le Boyer (Stunt double)
  Tsuyoshi Abe (Stunt performer)
  Daisuke Amano (Stunt performer)
  Hiro Asari (Stunt performer)
  Brent A. Chan (Stunt performer)
  Mike Ching (Stunt performer)
  Phil Chong (Stunt performer)
  Jackie Old Coyote (Stunt performer)
  Alaynna Davis (Stunt performer)
  Christine Davis (Stunt performer)
  Sarah Davis (Stunt performer)
  Jean-Jacques Desplanques (Stunt performer)
  Stephen Dunham (Stunt performer)
  Dave Foreman (Stunt performer)
  Al Goto (Stunt performer)
  Tad Griffith (Stunt performer)
  Kiwa Halley (Stunt performer)
  Ken Hasegawa (Stunt performer)
  Albert Rounds Heimuli (Stunt performer)
  Steven Ho (Stunt performer)
  Tasho Ihara (Stunt performer)
  Yoshio Ilzuka (Stunt performer)
  Shogo Ikegami (Stunt performer)
  Brian Imada (Stunt performer)
  Stephen D. Ito (Stunt performer)
  Lani Jackson (Stunt performer)
  Geraldine Jacobsen (Stunt performer)
  Akira Kamito (Stunt performer)
  Motoki Kawana (Stunt performer)
  Jon W. Kishi (Stunt performer)
  Kraig Kishi (Stunt performer)
  Masato Kobayashi (Stunt performer)
  Tatsuro Koike (Stunt performer)
  Joel Kramer (Stunt performer)
  Yoshiyuki Kubo (Stunt performer)
  Takahiro Kudo (Stunt performer)
  Will Leong (Stunt performer)
  James Lew (Stunt performer)
  Cotton Mather (Stunt performer)
  Yoshio Miyaki (Stunt performer)
  Ryoichi Murakami (Stunt performer)
  Koji Nakamura (Stunt performer)
  Tadahiro Nakamura (Stunt performer)
  Taketo Nakamura (Stunt performer)
  Nobuyuki Obikane (Stunt performer)
  Lin Oeding (Stunt performer)
  Tadashi Oiwa (Stunt performer)
  Noroa Poa (Stunt performer)
  Allan Poppleton (Stunt performer)
  Simon Rhee (Stunt performer)
  Shoji Sakai (Stunt performer)
  Takashi Sakamoto (Stunt performer)
  Jon Sakata (Stunt performer)
  Spencer Sano (Stunt performer)
  Kenji Sato (Stunt performer)
  Paul Shapcott (Stunt performer)
  Patrick Shining Elk (Stunt performer)
  Ava Strong (Stunt performer)
  Akira Sugihara (Stunt performer)
  Zokir Sultanov (Stunt performer)
  Keiya Tabuchi (Stunt performer)
  Hiroki Takano (Stunt performer)
  Kenji Tominaga (Stunt performer)
  Kazuki Tsujimoto (Stunt performer)
  Xuyen Sam Valdivia (Stunt performer)
  Kimio Yamada (Stunt performer)
  Moritaka Yoshida (Stunt performer)
  Marcus Young (Stunt performer)
  Peng Zhang (Stunt performer)
  Danny Baldwin (Stunt rider)
  Dean Caulfield (Stunt rider)
  Mick Corrigan (Stunt rider)
  Jonathan Costelloe (Stunt rider)
  Ricardo Cruz (Stunt rider)
  Alejandro Cobo Garcia (Stunt rider)
  Pedro Garcia Garcia (Stunt rider)
  Duncan McNaughton (Stunt rider)
  Peter Miles (Stunt rider)
  Atsushi Morita (Stunt rider)
  Shawn C. Orr (Stunt rider)
  Hernan Ortiz (Stunt rider)
  Tadahiro Shimizu (Stunt rider)
  Jesus Riaran Torres (Stunt rider)
  Eugenio Yenes (Stunt rider)
  Dave Van Zeyl (Stunt rigger)
MPAA Rating: R
Country: United States
Language: English

Music:
Songs: "Kagura-No-Netori," performed by Tokyo Gakuso, courtesy of Columbia Music Entertainment, Inc.
Source Text:

Copyright Claimant Copyright Date Copyright Number
Warner Bros. Entertainment, Inc. 16/1/2004 dd/mm/yyyy PA0001195970

PCA NO: 40226
Physical Properties: Sd: Dolby Digital; dts Digital Sound; SDDS Sony Dynamic Digital Sound in selected theatres
  col: Technicolor
  Lenses/Prints: Kodak Motion Picture Products; Fujifilm Motion Picture Products

 
Genre: Drama
Sub-Genre: Historical
 
Subjects (Major): Americans in foreign countries
  Civil War veterans
  Heroes
  Japan--History--Restoration, 1853--1870
  Modernity
  Moral reformation
  Samurai
  Tokyo (Japan)
 
Subjects (Minor): Alcoholics
  Battles
  Businessmen
  Cultural conflict
  Death and dying
  Decapitation
  Emperors
  English in foreign countries
  Expatriates
  Family relationships
  Firearms
  Forgiveness
  Friendship
  Greed
  Guilt
  Honor
  Imprisonment
  Indians of North America
  Insurgency
  Love
  Massacres
  Military education
  Officers (Military)
  Photographs
  San Francisco (CA)
  Self-sacrifice
  Sideshows
  Suicide
  Swords
  Treaties
  Village life
  Widows

Note: At the end of the film, the first time the cast credits appear, Tom Cruise is listed first and above title followed by principal actors. After initial crew credits, the cast is listed again in order of appearance. Opening voice-over narration by Timothy Spall, who portrayed “Simon Graham,” describes the legend of the Japanese islands' formation. Throughout the film, Cruise, as the character “Nathan Algren,” also provides voice-over narration from his notebooks, which recount his captivity, and growing interest and resulting conversion to the ways of the Samurai. Spall provides a voice-over narration at several other times in the film, explaining some historical context and concluding at the end of the film that although no one ever saw Algren again, he may have finally found peace. In the closing credits, special thanks was given to the following people: Government of New Zealand, The People of Taranaki, New Zealand, Peabody Essex Museum, Weta Workshop, City of Himeji, City of Kyoto, Engyoji Temple on Mt. Shosha and United Performers Studio.
       The Last Samurai was based, in part, on the Samurai Revolt of 1876--1877 and the Meiji Restoration in a rapidly modernizing Japan. For hundreds of years, Samurai had acted as personal armies for warring land owners, but by the 1600s, Shogun Tokugawa created peace among the factions, causing the Samurai class to turn to more domestic life. By 1854, the Japanese had signed the Treaty of Kanagawa, opening the country to international trade. However, by 1868, the Samurai, disgruntled by poor wages, led a successful insurgency against the Shogunate regime, thus beginning the period known as the Meiji Restoration. The new genro, ruling court officials, abolished the ancient class system, redistributed land and banned the wearing of swords in public, a direct insult to the Samurai.
       Information found in a Sep 2003 Premiere article and the pressbook on the film states that Radar Picture’s producer Scott Kroopf claimed the original idea for the film was based on the first cattle drive in Japan during the country’s modernization in the late 1870s. After several drafts from various writers, Kroopf hired Vincent Ward, who changed the cowboy drama into a saga about a Civil War veteran. After Ward and Kroopf went on to other projects, Zwick took charge of the film and hired John Logan to complete the script. The final screenplay includes writing from Academy Award-winning director Zwick and producer Marshall Herskovitz, who are both AFI alumni and longtime writing and producing partners.
       Although the character of Algren is fictional, according to the pressbook, the character “Katsumoto” is based on Samurai warrior Saigo Takamori, who led the defeat against the Shogunate Army to restore imperial power. Additionally, Simon Graham was based on American photographer Lafcadio Hearn, who lived in Japan in the 1890s writing for Harper’s and The Atlantic Monthly . Zwick stated that he was influenced by Takamori’s story as it was told in the book The Nobility of Failure by Ivan Morris. After installing fifteen-year-old Emperor Meiji, Takamori was appointed to the post of commander-in-chief of the armed services. Disgruntled by the Meiji regime opening its doors to western ideas, the more traditional Takamori soon retired from public service to Satsuma.
       When he later discovered that the government, fearing a revolt, was monitoring him and his students, Takamori, insulted by the distrust, led his 20,000 Samurai into battle against the government’s 50,000 soldiers, who were armed with Western firearms. In 1877, after months of battle, a wounded Takamori, unable to continue fighting, committed seppuku, a ritual suicide using the Samurai’s own sword. Japanese still honor Takamori as a symbol of devotion to one’s principles, although others believe he was a pampered and conservative aristocrat. The Samurai code, known as Bushido, emphasized loyalty, courage and sacrifice. It was also influenced by Zen Buddhism’s concept of living in the moment and incorporated both meditation and the art of the “tea ceremony,” which are both depicted in the film.
       According to Tom Cruise, The Last Samurai , a book about the film published by Warner Bros., the brutal battles against Cheyenne Native Americans, which Algren relives in flashback sequences throughout the film, are based on two actual battles: the 1864 Sand Creek, CO massacre and the 1868 attack at the Washita River in Oklahoma Indian Territory by General George Armstrong Custer on the same tribe, which had surrendered only days before.
       According to the pressbook, Cruise trained for over eight months to perfect Japanese swordsmanship and martial arts, and performed all his own stunts during over two months of battle sequences. Supporting actor Ken Watanabe also trained intensely and performed most of his stunts. Over 400 New Zealanders, including 75 of Japanese ancestry, and 600 Japanese extras were used in the film.
       Meiji-era costumes created by award-winning designer Ngila Dickson and her 80-member team included over 250 sets of armor and period dress for village life, American Indian wars and diverse Japanese street scenes. Portions of the film were shot at Kyoto, Mt. Shosha, the village of Himeji and nearby Engyoji Temple, Japan, which had not allowed filming on the premise previously. Shooting also took place in Los Angeles, CA, where the Warner Bros. New York Street lot was turned into the congested 19th century Ginza district in Tokyo. New Zealand locations included New Plymouth, the Lake Mangamahoe area and the Taranaki region, where set decorators planted period gardens and hundreds of pear, apple, cherry and bamboo trees to recreate a rural Samurai village.
       According to a 14 Jan 2003 HR article, members of the Maori, indigenous New Zealanders, objected to filming at Taranaki, which they consider sacred, and sought compensation for the footage of the mountain. The outcome of this dispute is undetermined.
       An 11 Nov 2003 DV article states that writer Garner Simmons filed charges against the Writers Guild of America-West (WGA) for their refusal to arbitrate his writing credit on The Last Samurai . Simmons argued that he and Michael Alan Eddy wrote a script with a plot similar to that of the film in 1992, and Warner Bros. refused to give them writing credit onscreen for their initial work. After the WGA found insufficient evidence of a link between the two scripts in a "participating writers investigation," Simmons and Eddy appealed to the WGA Board, but were refused an arbitration hearing. A 6 Jan 2004 LAT article reported that Eddy filed a federal lawsuit against the WGA on 5 Jan 2004, accusing them of spurning his efforts to secure proper writing credit and compensation for his screenplay by blocking Eddy from entering the arbitration proceedings. Documentation filed that week states that Interscope Communications, predecessor to Radar Pictures, paid Eddy for a screenplay entitled Eastern Western and then hired Simmons to rewrite the script, which was retitled West of the Rising Sun . The article then states that Ward gave this draft to Zwick, who stated that this draft was the script about an early Japanese cattle drive. A 26 Mar 2004 LAT article states that a federal judge dismissed a suit filed by Eddy against Zwick, Herskovitz, Radar Pictures Inc. and Warner Bros., in which he had accused them of depriving him of onscreen credit writing credit. This ruling did not effect Eddy’s federal lawsuit against the WGA, which Eddy continued to pursue. The outcome of this suit is unknown.
       As noted in a 19 Dec 2003 Entertainment Weekly article, The Last Samurai marked the first American feature film role for actor Ken Watanabe, a famous Japanese film and television actor. The picture also marked the film debuts of Shichinosuke Nakamura and kung-fu expert Shin Koyamada. In addition to being selected as one of AFI's top ten films of 2003, The Last Samurai was selected as one of the top ten films by the National Board of Review, which also named Zwick as Best Director of 2003.
       The film was nominated for Golden Globe Awards for Best Actor in a Leading Role--Drama (Cruise), Best Actor in a Supporting Role (Watanabe) and Best Original Score (Hans Zimmer). Watanabe received a nomination for Best Supporting Actor by the Screen Actors Guild. Additionally, producers Herskovitz, Zwick, Cruise and Paula Wagner were nominated for the PGA’s Darryl F. Zanuck Producer of the Year Award. The Art Directors Guild nominated the picture for Best Production Design of a Period or Fantasy Film. The Last Samurai also received Academy Award nominations in the following categories: Art Direction/Set Decoration, Costume Design, Sound Editing and Best Supporting Actor (Watanabe).

 

Bibliographic Sources:   Date   Page
Daily Variety   25 Feb 2002.   
Daily Variety   11 Nov 2003   p. 1, 22.
Daily Variety   1 Dec 2003.   
Daily Variety   3 Dec 2003.   
Entertainment Weekly   5 Dec 2003   pp. 63-64.
Entertainment Weekly   19 Dec 2003   p. 39.
Hollywood Reporter   15-21 Oct 2002.   
Hollywood Reporter   14 Jan 2003.   
Hollywood Reporter   15-21 Apr 2003.   
Hollywood Reporter   1 Dec 2003.   
Los Angeles Times   5 Dec 2003.   
Los Angeles Times   6 Jan 2004   p. 1, 6.
Los Angeles Times   26 Mar 2004   p. C2.
National Geographic News   2 Dec 2003.   
New York Times   7 Sep 2003.   
New York Times   5 Dec 2003.   
People   27 Jan 2003.   
Premiere   Sep 2003.   
Time   8 Dec 2003.   

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The American Film Institute is grateful to Sir Paul Getty KBE and the Sir Paul Getty KBE Estate for their dedication to the art of the moving image and their support for the AFI Catalog of Feature Films and without whose support AFI would not have been able to achieve this historical landmark in this epic scholarly endeavor.
 
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