AFI Catalog of Feature Films
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The Spirit of St. Louis
Director: Billy Wilder (Dir)
Release Date:   20 Apr 1957
Premiere Information:   New York opening: 21 Feb 1957; Los Angeles opening: 11 Apr 1957
Production Date:   mid-Jul 1955--3 Mar 1956
Duration (in mins):   135 or 138
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Cast:   James Stewart (Charles A. "Slim" Lindbergh)  
    Murray Hamilton (Harlan A. "Bud" Gurney)  
    Patricia Smith (Mirror girl)  
    Bartlett Robinson (B. F. Mahoney)  
    Marc Connelly (Father Hussman)  
    Arthur Space (Donald Hall)  
    Charles Watts (O. W. Schultz)  
    Robert Cornthwaite (Harry Knight)  
    Sheila Bond (Model-dancer)  
    Harlan Warde (Boedecker)  
    Dabbs Greer (Goldsborough)  
    Paul Birch (Blythe)  
    David Orrick (Harold Bixby)  
    Robert Burton (Maj. Lambert)  
    James L. Robertson (William Robertson)  
    Maurice Manson (E. Lansing Ray)  
    James O'Rear (Earl Thompson)  
    David McMahon (Lane)  
    Griff Barnett (Old farmer)  
    John Lee (Jess, the cook)  
    Herb Lytton (Casey Jones)  
    Roy Gordon (Associate producer)  
    Nelson Leigh (Director)  
    Jack Daly (Louie)  
    Carleton Young (Captain)  
    Eugene Borden (French gendarme)  
    Erville Alderson (Burt)  
    Olin Howlin (Salesman)  
    Aaron Spelling (Mr. Fearless)  
    Virginia Christine (Secretary)  
    Sid Saylor (Photographer)  
    Lee Roberts (Photographer)  
    Ray Walker (Barker)  
    Robert B. Williams (Editor)  
    David Alpert (Clerk)  
    Richard Deacon (Levine)  
    Ann Morrison (Mrs. Fearless)  
    William Neff (Cadet)  
    William J. White (Cadet)  
    Percival Vivian (Professor)  
    George Selk (Mechanic)  
    Pauline Drake (Sob sister)  
    Walter Kingson (Voice of newscaster)  
    Paul Brinegar (Father from Oklahoma)  
    Frances Allen (Mother from Oklahoma)  
    Joe Merrit (Sailor)  
    Ernie Taylor (Sailor)  
    Chief Yowlachie (Indian)  
    John Carlyle (Groom)  
    Rena Clark (Bride)  
    Gordon Barnes (Reporter)  
    Rush Williams (Reporter)  
    John McKee (Reporter)  
    Al Page (Reporter)  
    Jack Kenney (Reporter)  
    Tony Hughes (Reporter)  
    James Macklin (Reporter)  
    Max Wagner (Reporter)  
    Stuart Nedd (Reporter)  
    Jimmy Bates    

Summary: In 1927, in a hotel near New York’s Roosevelt Field, air pilot Charles A. “Slim” Lindbergh has been waiting for seven days for the rain to stop, so that he can embark on what he hopes will be man’s first successful nonstop trans-Atlantic flight to Paris. While Lindbergh lies sleepless, his friend, B. F. “Frank” Mahoney, guards his hotel room door from the numerous reporters who have waited with him for a break in the weather. In his room, Lindbergh reminisces about his former days as an air mail pilot flying over the Midwest: On a wintry night flight to Chicago, Lindbergh lands his antiquated De Haviland in a tiny air field to gas up. Although snow seems imminent, Lindbergh takes off, unaware that the Chicago landing field has closed due to snow. While in the air, Lindbergh’s plane ices up and stalls, forcing him to parachute out with the mailbag. Continuing his journey by train, Lindbergh meets a suspender salesman who, recognizing he is an aviator, reports that two airmen died competing for the Orteig prize to be awarded to the first pilots to fly across the Atlantic nonstop. His interest piqued, Lindbergh calls Columbia Aircraft Corporation in New York City from the diner at St. Louis’ Lambert Flying Field. Pretending to represent a group of prominent businessmen planning to buy a plane to compete in the trans-Atlantic race, Lindbergh is quoted the price of $15,000 for a Belanca plane. For the next six weeks, Lindbergh proposes his idea about entering the competition to St. Louis financiers. Eventually, with the help of his flying student, Harry Knight, Lindbergh meets with bank president Harold Bixby and other prominent St. Louis citizens. He explains to the group that, according to his calculations, flying nonstop, he can cross the ocean in forty hours in a single-engine plane by stripping the craft of all non-essential weight, thus allowing room for extra fuel tanks. The men are excited by Lindbergh’s vision and create a name for the plane, Spirit of St. Louis . With a $15,000 check provided by them, Lindbergh proceeds to New York, but upon arriving there, is told by Columbia’s president that the company will not sell the plane unless they choose the pilot. Dispirited, Lindbergh returns to St. Louis, where his sponsors immediately send him to San Diego to check out a small aircraft factory, Ryan Company. There he meets Frank, the president who promises to build a plane in ninety days. At the factory, Frank, Lindbergh and Ryan’s chief engineer agree upon a design that puts the gas tank in front. Although it blocks Lindbergh’s forward view, he is confident that he can use side windows and a periscope to compensate. To further decrease the weight, Lindbergh refuses to install all heavy indicator panels and plans to navigate by “dead reckoning,” using the stars, sun and magnetic field. In the race to complete the plane ahead of schedule, workers at the factory agree to work twenty-four hour shifts. Meanwhile, a radio broadcast reports that a team of two pilots, who were vying for the Orteig prize, were killed flight-testing a plane. The Ryan plane is completed in sixty-three days, but it seems all for nothing, as two French fliers competing for the prize take off for New York. Confident that the pilots will succeed, Lindbergh flies the Ryan to St. Louis, where he apologizes to Bixby about losing the prize money to the French fliers, thus depriving his backers of the opportunity to recoup their investment. However, Bixby reports that the Frenchmen, now missing, are believed to have gone down from ice on their wings. Although other pilots are preparing to attempt the crossing, the businessmen are reluctant to risk Lindbergh’s life. Determined to carry on, Lindbergh explains that the dead pilots would understand his resolve and proceeds as planned. At the New York hotel, where reporters type that he is sleeping like a baby, Lindbergh breaks out of his reverie and worries about building enough speed to take off in the mud. To decrease the weight of his plane, if only by a pound, Lindbergh unpacks his toothbrush, razor and extra shirt. He also unpacks the St. Christopher medal given to him by his student, Father Hussman, and reminisces how the priest’s special prayers for every occasion seemed to compensate for his poor flying skills. Finally, unable to sleep, Lindbergh goes to the airport, where his plane waits, filled with three hundred gallons of gas. To decrease the plane’s weight by twenty pounds, he eliminates the parachute. Limited space in the compartment necessitates placing the magnetic compass in an awkward position, so he determines that he needs a small mirror to see it. From the crowd waiting to watch the take-off, a young woman offers her mirror, which is then glued into place. Surreptitiously, Frank slips the St. Christopher’s medal into Lindbergh’s lunch bag. After a risky take-off, during which Lindbergh barely tops the trees, he discovers he has a stowaway, a fly, and passes time by calculating whether the insect flying within the plane adds weight. Every hour, Lindbergh switches fuel tanks to keep the load balanced. After passing over Cape Cod, he realizes his foot is numb and that he has not slept in twenty-eight hours. This prompts memories of sleeping on railroad tracks, short bunk beds, and under a windmill. When Lindbergh begins to doze, the fly, which he named “Jasper,” awakens him by alighting on his face. Passing over Nova Scotia, Lindbergh spots a motorcyclist below and remembers his own Harley-Davidson, which he traded for his first plane on which he taught himself to fly. Eleven hours from New York, and with 1,900 miles of open water to cover before reaching Ireland, Lindbergh sees mountain peaks and wonders if the downed pilots are lost there. His own dangerous stunts come to mind and he recalls performing in a “Flying Circus.” During his sixteenth hour of flight, as darkness falls, he worries that the plane’s cylinder might crack from the cold. The sight of a “white ship,” which he soon realizes is an iceberg, is evidence that he is near the Arctic Circle. Exhausted, he longs to land on one and sleep, and remembers the time he landed an old clunker of a plane at Brooks Field army base. After eighteen hours of flight, the plane’s wings ice up, and when the engine stalls, he turns the plane toward warmer air. As the stalled plane begins to plummet, he prepares to bail out, but the ice breaks off and the engine resumes running. Upon returning to his course, Lindbergh discovers that his compass has become inoperable, thus forcing him to resort to flying by the stars. By dawn, he is so tired that he cannot do calculations and falls asleep, causing the plane to circle and descend, but sunlight reflecting off the mirror awakens him in time to regain control of the plane. A seagull alerts him to the nearness of land, and he soon realizes that he has reached Ireland ahead of schedule. When he prepares to eat his sandwich, he finds the St. Christopher’s medal and hangs it on the dashboard. At the coast of France he turns northeast to follow the Seine River, noting he has only ninety-eight miles to go. Anxiety strikes when his engines again cut out, until he realizes he forgot to switch gas tanks. With a flick of the switch, he remedies the problem and the plane continues. Evening falls and he sees the lights of Paris. Flying toward Le Bourget airfield, he is bewildered to see spotlights and crowds of people. Exhaustion causes him to panic as he lands and he cries out one of Father Hussman’s prayers, “Oh, God help me!” On the ground, hordes of people rush to Lindbergh, blind him with camera flashes and carry him triumphantly to the hangar, to which others are dragging his plane. Tired and confused, Lindbergh eventually realizes that the crowd is cheering for his great achievement. Upon Lindbergh’s return to New York, the celebrations continue with a huge parade in his honor. 

Production Company: Leland Hayward Productions, Inc.  
  Billy Wilder Productions, Inc.  
Production Text: A Leland Hayward-Billy Wilder Production
Distribution Company: Warner Bros. Pictures, Inc.  
Director: Billy Wilder (Dir)
  Charles C. Coleman Jr. (Asst dir)
  Don Page (Asst dir)
  James Rosenberger (2d asst dir)
  Fred Scheld (Extra asst dir)
Producer: Leland Hayward (Prod)
  Billy Wilder (Prod)
Writer: Billy Wilder (Scr)
  Wendell Mayes (Scr)
  Charles Lederer (Adpt)
Photography: Robert Burke (Dir of photog)
  J. Peverell Marley (Dir of photog)
  Thomas Tutwiler (Aerial photog)
  Charles Eames (Montage by)
  Ted McCord (Head cam)
  Lenny South (Cam op)
  Fred Terzo (Cam op)
  Eddie Leon Albert (Asst cam)
  Wally Meinardus (Asst cam)
  Bert Eason (Flying asst cam)
  Mac Julian (Stills)
  Harold Noyes (Head grip)
  Harry Williams (Aerial grip)
  William Classen (Grip)
  Frank Flanagan (Gaffer/Head electrician)
  Foy Barnett (Best boy)
Art Direction: Art Loel (Art dir)
Film Editor: Arthur P. Schmidt (Film ed)
Set Decoration: William L. Kuehl (Set dec)
  Herbert Plews (Prop master)
  Les Asher (Asst props)
  Lloyd R. Crawford (Painter)
  James Peck (Prop shop)
  Victor Scheckel (Green man)
Costumes: Victor Vallejo (Men's ward)
  Jane Leonard (Women's ward)
Music: Franz Waxman (Mus comp and cond)
  Leonid Raab (Orch)
Sound: M. A. Merrick (Sd)
  Ross Owen (Rec)
  Monty Pearce (Sd ed)
  Irvin Jay (Sd ed)
  Don Olson (Sd ed)
  Harold Fisher (Sd ed)
  J. Alvin Marsh (Boom man)
Special Effects: H. F. Koenekamp (Spec eff)
  Louis Lichtenfield (Spec eff)
  Wally Honn (Spec eff)
Make Up: Gordon Bau (Makeup supv)
  Robert Ewing (Makeup)
  Connie Nichols (Hairdresser)
  Ann Locker (Hairdresser)
Production Misc: Paul Mantz (Aerial supv)
  Duane Harrison (Prod assoc)
  Norman Cook (Prod mgr)
  Major General Victor Bertrandias USAF (Ret) (Tech adv)
  Harlan A. Gurney (Tech adv)
  Charles Eames (Prod consultant)
  John Oliver (Radio op)
  Marvin Herness (Radio op)
  Richard Joslin (Radio navigator)
  Howard Hohler (Scr supv)
  Carl Combs (Pub)
  Bill Boone (Co-pilot)
  Cort Johnston (Flight eng)
  Stan Reaver (Pilot)
  James Thompson (Pilot)
  James Bissell (Pilot-mechanic)
  John Hawkins (Mechanic)
  Carroll Wright (Mechanic)
  Edward Weidman (Mechanic)
Stand In: John T. Mapes (Stunts)
Country: United States
Language: English

Music:
Songs: "Rio Rita," music by Harry Tierney, lyrics by Joseph McCarthy.
Composer: Joseph McCarthy
  Harry Tierney
Source Text: Based on the book The Spirit of St. Louis by Charles A. Lindbergh (New York, 1953).
Authors: Charles A. Lindbergh

Copyright Claimant Copyright Date Copyright Number
Leland Hayward Productions, Inc. 20/4/1957 dd/mm/yyyy LP10539

PCA NO: 17794
Physical Properties: Sd: RCA Sound System
  col: WarnerColor
  Widescreen/ratio: CinemaScope

 
Genre: Biography
Sub-Genre: Aviation
 
Subjects (Major): Air pilots
  Airplanes--Design and construction
  Investors
  Charles A. Lindbergh
  Voyages and travel
 
Subjects (Minor): Air shows
  Atlantic Ocean
  Barnstormers
  Compasses
  Daydreaming
  Diners (Restaurants)
  Flies
  Lambert Field (St. Louis, MO)
  Le Bourget Airfield (Paris, France)
  Mirrors
  Parades
  Prayer
  Priests
  Prizes and trophies
  Religious articles
  Reporters
  Roosevelt Field (NY)
  St. Louis (MO)
  San Diego (CA)
  Sleep
  Traveling salesmen

Note: After the opening credits, the following written prologue appears: "In 1927 a young man alone in a single engine airplane flew non-stop from Roosevelt Field in New York across the entire North Atlantic to Le Bourget Field in Paris, a distance of three thousand six hundred and ten miles. In this triumph of mind, body and spirit, Charles A. Lindbergh influenced the lives of everyone on earth--for in the 33 hours and 30 minutes of his flight the air age became a reality. This is the story of that flight." Several flashback sequences are interspersed throughout the film. Most of the flashbacks are introduced by the voice-over narration of James Stewart, who as “Lindbergh” provides intermittent narration throughout the film. As noted in the MPH review, footage from an actual 1927 newsreel, showing the “unbelievable adulation which marked the stupendous New York parade when Lindbergh returned home” was shown at the end of the film.
       As depicted in the film, in 1919, when aviation was in its infancy, a prize was offered by French-American New York hotelier Raymond Orteig, to the first aviator to fly nonstop from New York to Paris. Not until the mid-1920s had developments in aircraft made that kind of flight possible. Even then, however, the dangers remained, among them: fuel shortages; inclement weather; ice weighing down planes, stalling engines or bursting fuel lines; pilot fatigue; and loss of direction. Several pilots attempted to win the Orteig prize, usually flying in teams of two and in multi-engine planes; many died or were injured in the attempt, and none had been successful. When twenty-five-year-old airmail pilot Charles A. Lindbergh registered with the National Aeronautic Association as a contestant for the prize, he was considered a long shot. According to his autobiography, he was eager to prove the potential of air travel to the public and felt that his Midwestern airmail route, which required nighttime flying in the snow, ice and fog, was adequate preparation for the challenges of trans-Atlantic flight.
       Many of the characters in the film were real persons. As shown in the film, St. Louis, MO businessmen financed the building of Lindbergh’s plane, which Harold Bixby, the president of State National Bank and the St. Louis Chamber of Commerce (portrayed by David Orrick), named Spirit of St. Louis . According to modern sources, Lindbergh did attempt to purchase a Bellanca and, failing that, was directed to the Ryan Airlines, Inc. by his backers. The employees of the company, headed by B. F. “Frank” Mahoney, worked long hours to complete the plane in sixty days. Although the work of Ryan’s chief engineer, Donald Hall, is underplayed in the film, according to modern sources, Hall and Lindbergh worked closely together in designing the plane.
       Two days before Lindbergh flew the newly tested plane to St. Louis, French pilots Charles Nungesser and Francois Coli disappeared mid-flight in their attempt to travel from Paris to New York. According to modern sources, Lindbergh’s flight from the San Diego area to Roosevelt Field, NY, with one stop in St. Louis, broke the transcontinental record of that time.
       Most incidents in the film are historically accurate: The placing of the fuel tank in the front of the plane, the spectator who offered her mirror to Lindbergh, the inclement weather and muddy runway at Roosevelt Field and Lindbergh’s sleepless night before the flight are true events. The gathering of thousands of people waiting for Lindbergh at Le Bourget airfield at the end of his flight was also a true occurrence. The song, “Rio Rita,” which Stewart sings briefly, was from the 1927 Broadway show of the same name. According to a modern source, Lindbergh and Mahoney were on their way to the theater to see the play on 19 May 1927 when they learned that the Weather Bureau had predicted a change in the weather. Believing that Lindbergh would be able to take off early in the morning, they returned to the hotel without seeing the play. On 20 May 1927, Lindbergh took off for France, arriving at Le Bourget on 21 May, thirty-three and a half hours later.
       Lindbergh’s journey popularized aviation, enticing many men into the field, and proved the future potential of air travel. In the following years, the number of applicants for pilot’s licenses, licensed aircrafts and American landing fields and airports increased dramatically. Dubbed “Lucky Lindy” by his fans, Lindbergh became an international hero. His feat inspired the popular song "Lucky Lindy" as well as a dance, “The Lindy Hop,” which was named for him. His dedication to commercial aviation continued throughout his life, during which he helped to develop transcontinental aviation and flew survey flights for passenger and airmail routes.
       Two years after the events of the film, following his marriage to the future author Anne Morrow, the couple flew survey flights together. Although Lindbergh remained in the news, he was not always happy or popular. The highly publicized kidnapping and murder of the first of their six children, Charles A. Lindbergh, Jr., prompted him and Anne to move to Europe for privacy and the safety of their second child. While there, Lindbergh toured German aircraft factories at the request of the United States government and developed an admiration for the Germans. When he returned home, he supported America First, an organization that called for non-intervention in World War II and for which he was criticized. However, after the attack on Pearl Harbor, he served as a test pilot and engaged in combat missions.
       In 1953, Lindbergh published an autobiography entitled The Spirit of St. Louis . An Oct 1953 HR news item reported that the film rights to the work, which was being offered for $1,000,000 and rigid script control, interested several production companies, among them, Goldwyn, Twentieth Century-Fox, King Vidor Productions and Columbia. In Mar 1954, a LAT news item announced that Warner Bros. had purchased the rights and planned for Leland Hayward to produce and Billy Wilder to write and direct the script.
       The film was shot between Jul 1955 and Mar 1956. According to a modern source, the script was shot in reverse order, allowing the Paris sequence, which was set in May, to be filmed in summer. According to a Feb 1956 HR “Here and Now” column, portions of the film were shot on location at Platt Ranch in Canoga Park, CA, and a Nov 1955 HR news item added the Santa Monica airport as a location site. A Dec 1955 HR news item reported that the troupe spent four weeks on location at Santa Maria, CA. An Oct 1955 NYT news item announced location shooting on a runway of the Flushing, NY airport and outside the Woolworth Building on Broadway in New York City. In Feb 1957, a NYT news item noted that some scenes were shot on location in Santa Ana, CA. In addition, NYT and HR news items reported that aerial shots were filmed over Long Island; Boston; Nova Scotia; Newfoundland; Greenland; Cherbourg and Le Havre, France; Killarney, Ireland; and Spain. According to studio production notes, Le Bourget airfield was recreated at Guyancourt near Versailles, France.
       Although their appearance in the film has not been confirmed, HR news items add the following actors to the cast: Josh Weiner, Bartlett Robinson, Creighton Hale, Joan Lee and Charlotte Portnoy. According to a NYT news item, the film marked the screen acting debut of playwright Marc Connelly, who portrayed “Father Hussman.” An Apr 1957 LAMirror article reported that prop master Herbert Plews used three “fly wranglers” to collect the 4,200 flies used to portray “Jasper” in fourteen pages of script.
       According to a Feb 1956 HR news item, Harlan A. Gurney, who served as technical advisor for the flying circus sequence, was a former barnstormer and associate of Lindbergh, and was a United Airline pilot at the time of the film’s production. Stewart, although more than twice the age that Lindbergh had been in 1927, had piloted B-17s and B-24s during World War II, and was in the Air Force reserve at the time of the film. He watched newsreels of Lindbergh to learn his mannerisms, according to a Jan 1956 LAHE article, and appears with uncharacteristic blonde hair, like Lindbergh's, in the film. A Feb 1956 HR news item reported that Lindbergh visited the studio to review scenes, and a Feb 1957 NYT news item, stated that Lindbergh, Stewart and Gurney did some stunt flying. Producer Hayward, a former airline executive and talent agent, was also an amateur pilot.
       According to studio production notes, Paul Mantz reconstructed Lindbergh’s plane, which had already been acquired by the Smithsonian Institution, using original Ryan blueprints, adding copies of the pilot’s wicker seat and periscope arrangement. According to a modern source, three replicas were used in the film. One of the planes was later owned by Stewart and donated by him to the Henry Ford Museum in 1959. For his work on the film, Louis Lichtenfield was nominated for an Academy Award for Special Effects, but lost to Walter Rossi in The Enemy Below .
       Noting the long shooting time and costly location work, reviews reported that Warner Bros. spent $6 million in the making of The Spirit of St. Louis , which was atypical among films made by Wilder, who was known for his wry humor and often biting satire that explored the darker side of human nature. Despite the HR review’s prediction that “exhibitor prospects for good grosses...are excellent,” the film was one of the studio’s biggest financial failures in its history. A Feb 1957 Time article reported that the studio polled sneak preview audience members and learned that people under forty years of age were unaware of Lindbergh and his accomplishments. According to a Mar 1957 MPH article, the studio recruited Tab Hunter, who did not appear in the film but was popular with young audiences, to make a twelve-city tour, speaking at high schools and colleges on behalf of the film.
       Before his death from cancer in 1974, Lindbergh became an advocate of the rocketry experiments of Robert Goddard, and co-developed a pump that became a predecessor of the artificial heart. In his later years, according to modern sources, he was dedicated to the preservation of the environment, wildlife and native peoples. However, his biggest achievement was the flight he took on a rainy day, 20 May 1927, after which he became one of the most famous pilots in the history of aviation.
       On the seventy-fifth anniversary of Lindbergh's flight in May 2002, Erik Lindbergh, who is a commercial pilot and flight instructor, recreated his grandfather's flight in a Lancair Columbia 300, dubbed "The New Spirit of St. Louis." The flight was made to raise awareness of rheumatoid arthritis, from which he suffered for fifteen years, and also to promote the X Prize Foundation, a St. Louis-based non-profit offering $10,000,000 to the first private group to successfully build and launch a manned spacecraft. 

Bibliographic Sources:   Date   Page
American Cinematographer   Jun 57   pp. 366-67, 384, 386-88.
The American Weekly   5 Feb 1956   p. 8, 9, 11.
Box Office   23 Feb 1957.   
Box Office   9 Mar 1957.   
Colliers   30 Mar 1956   pp. 30-31.
Cue   16 Feb 1957   p. 14-15, 38.
Cue   23 Feb 1957.   
Daily Variety   23 Mar 1955.   
Daily Variety   20 Feb 57   p. 3.
Film Daily   20 Feb 57   p. 8.
Hollywood Reporter   28 Oct 1953.   
Hollywood Reporter   3 Apr 1955   p. 4.
Hollywood Reporter   3 Aug 1955   p. 4.
Hollywood Reporter   12 Aug 1955   p. 13.
Hollywood Reporter   15 Aug 1955   p. 5.
Hollywood Reporter   2 Sep 1955   p. 13.
Hollywood Reporter   20 Sep 1955   p. 4.
Hollywood Reporter   5 Oct 1955   p. 3.
Hollywood Reporter   26 Oct 1955   p. 2.
Hollywood Reporter   14 Nov 1955   p. 3.
Hollywood Reporter   18 Nov 1955   p. 31.
Hollywood Reporter   30 Nov 1955   p. 7.
Hollywood Reporter   12 Dec 1955   p. 2.
Hollywood Reporter   20 Dec 1955   p. 8.
Hollywood Reporter   27 Dec 1955   p. 16.
Hollywood Reporter   16 Feb 1956   p. 6.
Hollywood Reporter   24 Feb 1956   p. 2.
Hollywood Reporter   29 Feb 1956.   
Hollywood Reporter   2 Mar 1956   p. 17.
Hollywood Reporter   9 Mar 1956   p. 12.
Hollywood Reporter   7 Sep 1956   p. 9.
Hollywood Reporter   19 Oct 1956   p. 8.
Hollywood Reporter   20 Feb 57   p. 3.
Los Angeles Herald Express   1 Jan 1956.   
Los Angeles Herald Express   23 Mar 1957.   
Los Angeles Mirror   11 Apr 1957   Part II, p. 9, 11.
Los Angeles Times   8 Mar 1954.   
Los Angeles Times   10 Mar 1957   Part V, p. 1, 3.
Los Angeles Times   12 Apr 1957.   
Life   4 Mar 1957   pp. 104-109.
Motion Picture Herald Product Digest   2 Mar 57   p. 283.
New York Times   8 Oct 1955.   
New York Times   17 Feb 1957.   
New York Times   22 Feb 57   p. 25.
New Yorker   2 Mar 1957.   
Newsweek   25 Feb 1957.   
Redbook   May 1957.   
Saturday Review   9 Mar 1957.   
Time   18 Feb 1957.   
Variety   20 Feb 57   p. 6.

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