AFI Catalog of Feature Films
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To Have and Have Not
Director: Howard Hawks (Dir)
Release Date:   20 Jan 1945
Premiere Information:   New York opening: 11 Oct 1944
Production Date:   29 Feb--10 May 1944
Duration (in mins):   100-101
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Cast:   Humphrey Bogart (Harry Morgan)  
    Walter Brennan (Eddie)  
    Lauren Bacall (Marie Browning, also known as Slim)  
    Dolores Moran (Helene De Bursac)  
    Hoagy Carmichael (Crickett)  
    Sheldon Leonard (Lieutenant Coyo)  
    Walter Molnar (Paul De Bursac)  
    Marcel Dalio (Gerard, also known as Frenchy)  
    Walter Sande (Johnson)  
    Dan Seymour (Captain Renard)  
    Aldo Nadi (Renard's bodyguard)  
    Paul Marion (Beauclerc)  
    Sir Lancelot (Horatio)  
    Eugene Borden (Quartermaster)  
    Elzie Emanuel (Black child)  
    Harold Garrison (Black child)  
    Pedro Regas (Civilian)  
    Major Fred Farrell (Headwaiter)  
    Adrienne D'Ambricourt (Cashier)  
    Marguerita Sylva (Cashier)  
    Margaret Hathaway (Waitress)  
    Louise Clark (Waitress)  
    Suzette Harbin (Waitress)  
    Gussie Morris (Waitress)  
    Kanza Omar (Waitress)  
    Margaret Savage (Waitress)  
    Emmett Smith (Black bartender)  
    Maurice Marsac (DeGaullist)  
    Fred Dosch (DeGaullist)  
    George Suzanne (DeGaullist)  
    Louis Mercier (DeGaullist)  
    Crane Whitley (DeGaullist)  
    Hal Kelly (Detective)  
    Jean De Briac (Gendarme)  
    Chef Joseph Milani (Chef)  
    Oscar Lorraine (Bartender)  
    Ron Rondell (Naval ensign)  
    Audrey Armstrong (Dancer)  
    Edith Wilson (Black woman)  
    Marcel de la Brosse (Sailor)  
    Patricia Shay (Mrs. Beauclerc)  
    Janette Gras (Rosalie)  
    Jack Chefe (Guide)  
    George Sorel (French officer)  
    Roger Valmy (Flirtatious Frenchman)  
    Keith Lawrence (Flirtatious Frenchman)  
    Jack Passin    
    Alphonse Dubois    
    James Burross    
    Milton Shockley    
    Jack Winslow    
    Frank Johnson    

Summary: In Fort de France, Martinique, in the summer of 1940, shortly after the fall of France to the Germans, an American named Johnson hires professional fisherman Harry Morgan to take him fishing on Morgan's boat. Johnson complains about the cost of the expedition and the onboard presence of Eddie, a drunk, and Horatio, a native. Refusing to listen to Harry's instructions, Johnson loses a rod and reel belonging to Harry. Fed up with Johnson, Harry cancels the rest of the trip and insists that Johnson pay him for the lost equipment as well as his fees for the past week. Johnson promises to pay what he owes after the banks open the next morning. Back in Fort de France, bartender Gerard, commonly known as Frenchy, asks Harry to rent him his boat for one night to transport some members of the resistance underground, but Harry refuses to become involved in Frenchy's political activities. Later, in the hotel bar, Harry sees attractive young Marie Browning pick Johnson's pocket, and when she leaves the bar, he follows her and demands that she return the wallet. Harry checks the wallet and is surprised to see that it contains enough money in traveler's cheques to pay his fees and that Johnson's plane leaves early the next morning before the banks open. After Marie, whom Harry has dubbed Slim, returns the wallet to the indignant Johnson, Harry insists that he sign some of the cheques, but before Johnson can complete this task, he is killed by gunshots from the street directed at Frenchy's allies. The police detain some of the customers, including Frenchy, Marie and Harry, for questioning. Later that night, Marie tells Harry that she is tired of her footloose life and would like to settle down. In order to earn enough money to put himself back in business and help Marie, Harry agrees to pick up Frenchy's friends. Before he leaves, he buys Marie a ticket on the plane leaving that afternoon for the United States. After picking up Helene and Paul De Bursac, Harry is spotted by a patrol boat, and Paul is wounded before they escape. Harry is surprised to find that Marie stayed in Martinique to be with him. At Frenchy's request, Harry removes the bullet from De Bursac's shoulder and learns that the De Bursacs have been assigned to help a man escape from Devil's Island. De Bursac asks for Harry's assistance, but Harry turns him down. Later, the police, who recognized Harry's boat the previous night, reveal that they have Eddie in custody and will coerce him to tell the truth about the boat's cargo. At gunpoint, Harry forces the police to arrange for Eddie's release and sign harbor passes, so that he can take the De Bursacs to Devil's Island. After Eddie returns, he, Harry and Marie leave Martinique for a more committed life together. 

Production Company: Warner Bros. Pictures, Inc.  
Production Text: A Howard Hawks Production
Brand Name: A Warner Bros.--First National Picture
Distribution Company: Warner Bros. Pictures, Inc.  
Director: Howard Hawks (Dir)
  Jack Sullivan (Asst dir)
  Russ Llewellyn (2d asst dir)
  David Klegman (2d asst dir)
Producer: Jack L. Warner (Exec prod)
Writer: Jules Furthman (Scr)
  William Faulkner (Scr)
Photography: Sid Hickox (Dir of photog)
  Michael Joyce (Cam op)
  Lou Molina (Asst cam)
  Mac Julian (Stills)
  Paul Burnett (Gaffer)
  Louis Mashmeyer (Grip)
  Hugh Addington (Best boy)
Art Direction: Charles Novi (Art dir)
Film Editor: Christian Nyby (Film ed)
Set Decoration: Casey Roberts (Set dec)
  John More (Props)
  Keefe O'Malley (Asst props)
Costumes: Milo Anderson (Gowns)
  Mary Riley (Ward)
  Roy Dumont (Ward)
  Guy Villemin (Ward)
Music: Leo F. Forbstein (Mus dir)
Sound: Oliver S. Garretson (Sd)
  Gerald W. Alexander (Re-rec and eff mixer)
  Robert G. Wayne (Re-rec and eff mixer)
  Charles David Forrest (Mus mixer)
Special Effects: Roy Davidson (Sp eff dir)
  Rex Wimpy (Spec eff)
  Paul Detlefsen (Matte paintings)
Make Up: Perc Westmore (Makeup artist)
  Joe Stinton (Makeup)
  Edith Westmore (Hair)
Production Misc: Chuck Hansen (Unit mgr)
  Meta Carpenter (Scr clerk)
Country: United States

Songs: "How Little We Know," music by Hoagy Carmichael, lyrics by Johnny Mercer; "Hong Kong Blues," music by Hoagy Carmichael, lyrics by Stanley Adams; "Am I Blue?" music by Harry Akst, lyrics by Grant Clarke.
Composer: Stanley Adams
  Harry Akst
  Hoagy Carmichael
  Grant Clarke
  Johnny Mercer
Source Text: Based on the novel To Have and Have Not by Ernest Hemingway (New York, 1937).
Authors: Ernest Hemingway

Copyright Claimant Copyright Date Copyright Number
Warner Bros. Pictures, Inc. 20/1/1945 dd/mm/yyyy LP13056

Physical Properties: b&w:
  Sd: RCA Sound System

Genre: Drama
Subjects (Major): Fishermen
  Moral reformation
  World War II--Resistance movements
Subjects (Minor): Alcoholics
  Gunshot wounds

Note: Ernest Hemingway's novel was based, in part, on two previously published short stories, "One Trip Across," published in Apr 1934 in Cosmopolitan , and "The Tradesman's Return," published in 1937. Walter Brennan was borrowed from Goldwyn for the production. Several sources state that this was Hoagy Carmichael's screen debut, but he appeared in several films in the 1930s (see Personal Name Index in AFI Catalog of Feature Films, 1931-40 ). This film marked Lauren Bacall's screen debut. Impressed by Bacall's sultry delivery of her lines, such as the often-quoted, "You know how to whistle, don't you, Steve? You just put your lips together and blow," the Var reviewer called her "an arresting personality...she can slink, brother, and no fooling!" and the NYT reviewer described her as "Slumberous of eye and softly reedy, she acts in the quiet way of catnip and sings a song from deep down in her throat." Bacall and Humphrey Bogart met for the first time during this film and were married later in 1945.
       Information in the Warner Bros. Collection at the USC Cinema-Television Library provides the following details about the production: Ernest Hemingway's novel was set in Cuba, which originally was to be the setting of the movie as well. The U.S. Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs objected to this locale, however, believing that it might place a strain on Cuban-American relations. After the fall of France to the Germans in 1940, the location was changed to Martinique. According to a biography of William Faulkner, he was responsible for changing the story's location to Martinique. Technical advisor Louis Comiens was a native Frenchman who served with the army in Martinique. Some scenes were shot on location in Balboa and Laguna Beach, CA. Reviews commented on the similarities between this story and Warner Bros. 1943 film Casablanca , which also starred Bogart (see above). Modern sources add the following information about the production: Although many modern sources claim that Bacall's singing voice was dubbed by Andy Williams, Bacall states in her autobiography that she sang the songs in the film herself. Williams did occasionally dub women's voices for M-G-M. The actress was discovered by Howard Hawks's wife Nancy, a former model known as Slim. She spotted Bacall's photograph on the cover of Harper's Bazaar and suggested that Hawks test her for the part of "Marie." Hawks felt Bacall had the potential to be an actress like Marlene Dietrich and suggested that writer Jules Furthman, who had written roles for Dietrich in such films as Morocco , Shanghai Express and Blonde Venus , model the role of "Marie" on Dietrich. According to a biography of William Faulkner, he was the sole author of the "second revised final" script, but Hawks changed so much of the story to suit his own style that little of Faulkner's work remained.
       Ernest Hemingway's novel also provided the source for the 1950 Warner Bros. film The Breaking Point (see above) and the 1958 UA film The Gun Runners , starring Audie Murphy and directed by Don Siegel. A Lux Radio Theatre version of To Have and Have Not , starring Bacall and Bogart was broadcast on 14 Oct 1946. In 1957, a television version of the same title was broadcast on NBC as part of the Lux Video Theatre . It starred Edmond O'Brien and Beverly Garland and was directed by James Yarbrough. According to an 8 Aug 1957 HR news item, writer Ben Hecht was planning to make a new version of To Have and Have Not for Associated Artists Productions, who purchased rights to the property from Warner Bros., but this version was never produced. Bogart and Bacall made three more films together after this: The Big Sleep (1946), Dark Passage (1947) and Key Largo (1948). 

Bibliographic Sources:   Date   Page
Box Office   14 Oct 1944.   
Daily Variety   11 Oct 44   p. 3.
Film Daily   18 Oct 44   p. 11.
Hollywood Reporter   17 Dec 43   p. 2.
Hollywood Reporter   21 Feb 44   p. 13.
Hollywood Reporter   11 Oct 44   p. 5.
Hollywood Reporter   17 Oct 44   p. 6.
Hollywood Reporter   8 Aug 1957   p. 2.
Hollywood Reporter   30 Nov 1972.   
Motion Picture Herald Product Digest   14 Oct 44   pp. 2137-38.
New York Times   12 Oct 44   p. 24.
Variety   11 Oct 44   p. 12.

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The American Film Institute is grateful to Sir Paul Getty KBE and the Sir Paul Getty KBE Estate for their dedication to the art of the moving image and their support for the AFI Catalog of Feature Films and without whose support AFI would not have been able to achieve this historical landmark in this epic scholarly endeavor.
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