AFI Catalog of Feature Films
Movie Detail
Name Occurs Before Title Offscreen Credit Print Viewed By AFI
Alternate Title: MASH
Director: Robert Altman (Dir)
Release Date:   Mar 1970
Premiere Information:   New York opening: 25 Jan 1970; Los Angeles opening: 18 Feb 1970
Production Date:   14 Apr--mid-Jun 1969
Duration (in mins):   113 or 116
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Cast:   Donald Sutherland (Hawkeye Pierce)  
    Elliott Gould (Trapper John McIntyre)  
    Tom Skerritt (Duke Forrest)  
    Sally Kellerman (Maj. Margaret O'Houlihan, also known as "Hot Lips" )  
    Robert Duvall (Maj. Frank Burns)  
  Introducing Jo Ann Pflug (Lt. Dish)  
    Rene Auberjonois (Father John Mulcahy, also known as "Dago Red")  
    Roger Bowen (Col. Henry Blake)  
  Introducing Gary Burghoff (Corp. "Radar" O'Reilly)  
    David Arkin (Sgt. Major Vollmer)  
  Introducing John Schuck (Capt. Waldowski, also known as "Painless Pole")  
  Introducing Fred Williamson (Dr. Oliver "Spearchucker" Jones)  
    Indus Arthur (Lt. Leslie)  
  Introducing Tim Brown (Corp. Judson)  
  Introducing Corey Fischer (Capt. Bandini)  
  Introducing Bud Cort (Private Boone)  
  Introducing Carl Gottlieb (Ugly John)  
  Introducing Dawne Damon (Capt. Scorch)  
  Introducing Tamara Horrocks (Capt. Knocko)  
    Ken Prymus (PFC. Seidman)  
  Introducing Danny Goldman (Capt. Murrhardt)  
  Introducing Kim Atwood (Ho-jon)  
    Michael Murphy ("Me-Lay" Marston)  
  Introducing G. Wood (Gen. Hammond)  
    Rick Neilan (General's aide)  
    Bobby Troup (Sgt. Gorman)  
    Linnea Sievers (Cheerleader)  
    Norma Burkus (Cheerleader)  
    Vicki Townsend (Cheerleader)  
    Bonnie Schwartz (Cheerleader)  
    Noland "Super Knat" Smith (Football player)  
    L. Ortega Smith (Football player)  
    Ron Stein (Football player)  
    Ron Way (Football player)  
    Ron Van Hagen (Football player)  
    William Roemling (Football player)  
    Mickey Moshier (Football player)  
    John Meyers (Football player)  
    Don Moshier (Football player)  
    Mike Kemp (Football player)  
    Robert Manser (Football player)  
    Eugene Mullen (Football player)  
    Roy Hall (Football player)  
    Howard Williams (Football player)  
    Terry Belmore (Football player)  
    Jim Burger (Football player)  
    Don Watters (Football player)  
    Craig Chudy (Football player)  
    Gerry Okuneff (Football player)  
    Michael Bruce (Football player)  
    Sam Mides (Football player)  
    Whitey Matheson (Football player)  
    Jerry Freeman (Football player)  
    John Marsden (Football player)  
    Robert Cox (Football player)  
    Joe Gantos (Football player)  
    Ken Griffin (Football player)  
    Sal Centeno (Football player)  
    Bill Cosper (Football player)  
    William Ballard (Football player)  
    Carrell Balderston (Football player)  
    Don Johnson (Football player)  
    Tom Kinzer (Football player)  
    Edward Garcia (Football player)  
    Tom Woodeschick (Football player)  
    Ben Davidson (Football player)  
    Jack Concannon (Football player)  
    Jerry Pierson (Football player)  
    Steve Bewley (Football player)  
    Buck Buchanan (Football player)  
    Art Oliver (Football player)  
    Joe Sullivan (Football referee)  
    Howard Schnellenberger (Football referee)  
    Stanford Blum (Football referee)  
    Monica Peterson (Pretty WAC)  
    Joanne Hahn (Ward nurse)  
    Cathleen Cordell (Nurse Corps captain)  
    Sumi Haru (Japanese nurse)  
    Susan Ikeda (Japanese caddie)  
    Masami Saito (Japanese caddie)  
    John Mamo (Japanese golf pro)  
    Yuko Hahn (Geisha waitress)  
    Yoko Young (Michiko)  
    Samantha Scott (Nurse)  
    J. B. Douglas (Col. Merrill)  
    Tom Falk (Corp.)  
    Harvey Levine (2d Lt.)  
    Dianne Turley (Girl correspondent)  
    Weaver Levy (Korean doctor)  
    Dale Ishimoto (Korean doctor)  
    Ray Didsbury (Ad lib doctor)  
    Dr. David Sachs (Surgeon #1)  
    Stephen Altman (Hawkeye's 5-year-old son)  
    Van L. Honeycutt (Helicopter pilot #1)  
    Homer G. McCready (Helicopter pilot #2)  
    Eulan R. Poss Jr. (Helicopter pilot #3)  
    Buck Holland (Pilot)  
    Jerry Jones (Motor pool sergeant)  
    Hiroko Watanabe (Korean prostitute)  
    Samantha Scott (Pin-up model)  
    H. Lloyd Nelson    
    Ted Knight    
    Marvin Miller    
    Mary Jean Kuga    
    Ronny Quay    
    David Chambliss    
    Roy Pettie    
    Jim "Matt" Connors    
    Tony Santoro    
    Joe Amsler    
    Douglas Laurence    
    Thomas Randa    
    John Linton    
    Mark Jones    
    Ray Didsbury    
    Michael Consoldane    
    Lynn Grate    
    Ron Cragg    
    Alfred Jones    
    Greg Walker    
    Owen Song    
    Rosemary Sangster    

Summary: During the Korean War, Col. Henry Blake commands the 4077th Mobile Army Surgical Hospital (MASH), only miles from the front line. A lax military leader, the married Blake is more concerned with his lover and running the hospital than following any military protocol. Meanwhile, his right-hand man, Corp. “Radar” O’Reilly, who has an uncanny ability to recite Blake’s every command before he can utter it, manages the necessary bureaucratic red tape. In crowded and bloody operating tents, the short-handed staff, equipped with rapidly diminishing supplies, deals with dozens of wounded soldiers in twelve-hour shifts. Even the sincere yet ineffective Father John Mulcahey, also known as “Dago Red,” must stop reading the last rights to a dying man to assist in surgery. Upon Blake’s request for additional help, surgeons Duke Forrest and Hawkeye Pierce are sent to the 4077th. While extremely competent, the recently drafted Duke and Hawkeye lack any respect for military decorum. To maintain their sanity amidst the constant flow of death and mayhem, they flirt with the nurses, arrogantly quip in surgery and play practical jokes on their roommate, the fanatically pious and taciturn Maj. Frank Burns. After watching Burns teach Korean mess hall boy Ho-jon to learn English by reading the Bible out loud, Duke and Hawkeye decide the sixteen-year-old would have more fun practicing with Playboy and then teach him how to make martinis as their cabin boy. Fed up with Burns’ pious and humorless behavior, Duke and Hawkeye demand that Blake remove him from their tent. Pressured by the impending arrival of more wounded, Blake agrees to remove Burns and to get a “chest cutter,” the doctors’ other stipulation before they concede to operating. Days later, Hawkeye and Duke welcome thoracic surgeon and new roommate Trapper John McIntyre to The Swamp, their newly renamed tent. Trapper easily wins the men’s affection by providing hard-to-get olives for their martinis, but coyly eludes their questions about his past. Days later, Hawkeye finally recognizes Trapper as a former college football star when Trapper expertly catches a football pass, and also realizes Trapper is a preeminent surgeon. The two then become fast friends. One day at the hospital, Trapper watches as Burns, covering for his own malpractice, blames a patient’s death on Private Boone, who is stricken with despair over the incident. Furious about the irreparable harm Burns inflicts with his inept work, Trapper punches him just as Blake and the officious new chief nurse Major Margaret Houlihan pass by. Houlihan is incensed by the lack of decorum and further insulted by Hawkeye’s practice of addressing the staff by their first names. After she insists to Hawkeye that Burns is an excellent military doctor, he caustically replies that not only is he no longer interested in sleeping with the prudish Houlihan, but thinks she is a “regular Army clown.” One night as Houlihan and Burns draft a letter to protest Hawkeye and Trapper’s behavior, they are sexually aroused by their mutual respect for military law. Meanwhile, Radar sets up a microphone in Houlihan’s tent and broadcasts their passionate cries over the camp intercom system until the horrified couple realizes that the entire camp is listening in. The next morning Duke and the others taunt Houlihan with her new nickname “Hot Lips” and provoke Burns with questions about his sexual acts. When Burns physically attacks Hawkeye, Blake, believing the fight to be unprovoked, sends Burns away in a straight jacket. Days later, dental officer Capt. Waldowski, famous for sexual prowess and thus nicknamed “Painless Pole,” admits to Hawkeye that he has experienced one night of impotence. Believing psychological texts suggesting that his overt heterosexuality is just a cover for latent homosexuality, Painless decides to commit suicide to avoid facing his three fiancées back home. When Painless asks for assistance, Hawkeye suggests the “black capsule,” a quick end to his life. Dressed in white lab coats, the surgeons and friends prepare a suicide “last supper” in which they break bread and drink wine with Painless, before he climbs into a coffin to take his pill and die. That night, Hawkeye convinces the soon-to-be-discharged Lt. Dish, a married nurse with whom he has been having an affair, that she is obliged to have sex with the now-unconscious Painless to restore his “health.” The next morning, Painless wakes fully restored, while Dish leaves for home blissfully satisfied by Painless. Days later, the surgeons decide to bet on whether Houlihan is a “real” blonde and, needing proof, gather the camp outside the women’s shower and pull up the tent while Houlihan bathes. Humiliated and enraged, Houlihan demands that Blake fire Hawkeye and the others, threatening to resign her commission, but Blake instead suggests that she resign. Later, when Ho-jon is forced to have a medical examination to determine his eligibility to serve in the Korean army, Hawkeye gives him medication to cause temporary heart acceleration and low blood pressure to ensure that he is rejected. Suspecting the ruse, the Korean doctor keeps the boy as Hawkeye watches powerless to stop him. Soon after, Trapper receives orders to go to Kokura, Japan to tend to a United States congressman’s son and takes Hawkeye with him. Arriving at the Kokura hospital with their golf clubs, Hawkeye and Trapper demand to start the operation immediately so they can play a round before dark, despite the head nurses’ protests that they must first have commanding officer Col. Merrill’s approval. When Merrill barges into the operating without scrubs demanding an explanation, Hawkeye tells him that he will be to blame if the boy dies from infection caused by Merrill’s unsterilized intrusion. During surgery, anesthesiologist “Me-Lay” Marston, Hawkeye’s old friend, invites them to visit a brothel after surgery, explaining that the establishment doubles as a children’s hospital, where Me-Lay moonlights for surgeries. While being entertained by the prostitutes, an emergency arises involving a child of an American soldier and Japanese prostitute. Hawkeye and Trapper take the child to the military hospital, but Merrill refuses to serve “natives.” To prevent any military action against themselves or the child, Melay and the surgeons use the sedation gas on Merrill and take compromising photographs of him with a prostitute to use as blackmail. Returning to 4077th in their golf attire, complete with knickers and argyle socks, Hawkeye and Trapper go straight into surgery. Later, when Gen. Hammond arrives at the camp to investigate Houlihan’s formal complaints about the surgeons, Hawkeye, Duke and Trapper, aware of Hammond’s football obsession, distract him with the suggestion that they stage a football match between Hammond’s 325th and the 4077th, a team that has yet to be created. Hammond agrees on the condition that Blake place a $5,000 bet on the outcome of the game. Needing a fail safe team fast, the surgeons tell Blake to request surgeon Oliver Harmon “Spearchucker” Jones, once a star player for the Philadelphia Eagles. After several weeks of training, the 4077th team plays Hammond. Hawkeye, realizing that Spearchucker is their only real chance of winning, hides his identity from Hammond and keeps him out of the game until the second half. During the first half, Blake orders a 4077th player to inject a sedative into the opposing team’s star player, ensuring his removal from the game. In retaliation for a racial slur from a 325th player, Spearchucker coaches his teammate to insult the player’s sister, which results in a fight that leads to another 325th player being banned from the game, thus ensuring the 4077th’s victory. Days later back at camp, Hawkeye and Duke receive immediate orders to be relieved of their duty and return home. Unsure of what welcome awaits them, the men prepare to leave, while Mulcahy blesses their Jeep from his prayer book and the war continues on around them. 

Production Company: Aspen Productions  
Production Text: An Ingo Preminger Production
Distribution Company: Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corp.  
Director: Robert Altman (Dir)
  Ray Taylor, Jr. (Asst dir)
Producer: Ingo Preminger (Prod)
  Leon Ericksen (Assoc prod)
Writer: Ring Lardner Jr. (Scr)
Photography: Harold E. Stine (Dir of photog)
  Louis Schwartz (Cam op)
  Paul Koons (1st asst cam)
  G. Austin Saunders (2d asst cam)
  Robert Full (Still photog)
  Ross A. Maehl (Gaffer)
  Harry Jones (1st company grip)
Art Direction: Jack Martin Smith (Art dir)
  Arthur Lonergan (Art dir)
Film Editor: Danford B. Greene (Film ed)
  Leonard A. Engel (Supv mus film ed)
  Sam E. Levin (Mus film ed)
  Don Hall (Supv sd eff ed)
  Jack Cornall (Sd eff ed)
  Billie Owen (Sd eff ed)
  John Jolliffe (Sd eff ed)
  David Sachs (Sd eff ed)
Set Decoration: Walter M. Scott (Set dec)
  Stuart A. Reiss (Set dec)
  Syd Greenwood (Prop master)
  Robert Lombardi (Greensman)
Costumes: Wesley Trist (Ward)
  Mary Tate (Ward)
Music: Johnny Mandel (Mus)
  Herbert Spencer (Orch)
Sound: Bernard Freericks (Sd)
  John Stack (Sd)
Special Effects: L. B. Abbott (Spec photog eff)
  Art Cruickshank (Spec photog eff)
  Pacific Title (Titles)
Make Up: Dan Striepeke (Makeup supv)
  Lester Berns (Makeup artist)
  Edith Lindon (Hairstyling)
  Gerry Leetch (Hairstylist)
Production Misc: Norman A. Cook (Unit prod mgr)
  Dr. David Sachs (Medical adv)
  Y Ross Levy (Asst to prod)
  Marion Peterson (First aid)
  Linn Unkefer (Unit pub)
  Les Hoyle (Scr supv)
Stand In: Greg Walker (Stunts)
  Eddie Hice (Stunts)
  Rock Walter (Stunts)
  Eddie Smith (Stunts)
  Jack Forsyth (Stunts)
  Jim Nickerson (Stunts)
  John Ashby (Stunts)
MPAA Rating: R
Country: United States
Language: English

Songs: "Suicide Is Painless," music by Johnny Mandel, lyrics by Mike Altman.
Composer: Mike Altman
  Johnny Mandel
Source Text: Based on the novel MASH by Richard Hooker (New York, 1968).
Authors: Richard Hooker

Copyright Claimant Copyright Date Copyright Number
Aspen Productions 30/12/1969 dd/mm/yyyy LP37644

PCA NO: 22275
Physical Properties: col: DeLuxe
  Sd: Westrex Recording System
  Widescreen/ratio: Panavision

Genre: Comedy
Sub-Genre: Korean War
Subjects (Major): Insubordination
  Korean War, 1950-1953
  Military life
  United States Army--Mobile Army Surgical Hospital
Subjects (Minor): Combat
  Golf and golfers
  Mental illness
  Operations, Surgical
  Poker (Game)
  Practical jokes
  United States. Women's Army Corps

Note: The working title for this film was MASH , without the asterisks between the letters. M*A*S*H , which is an acronym for Mobile Auxiliary Surgical Hospital, opens with a written prologue that includes a section of General Douglas MacArthur’s famous 1951 farewell address to the United States Congress after he was relieved of duty in Korea and the quote from Dwight D. Eisenhower, "I will go to Korea," a campaign promise made during his successful bid for president that same year.
       The opening title sequence shows a line of helicopters returning from the battlefield to the 4077th MASH unit with wounded soldiers strapped to each side. In the closing credits, the cast’s names, rather than being written onscreen, are recited by actor David Arkin as “Sgt. Maj. Volmer” over footage of their respective characters. At the close of the film, Volmer announces that M*A*S*H was that night’s film and invites the audience to “follow . . . combat surgeons . . . operating as bombs and bullets burst around them, snatching laughs and loves between amputations and penicillin.”
       Dr. H. Richard Hornberger wrote the novel MASH , on which the film was based, as a fictional account of his experience as a Korean War Army surgeon. According to a 24 Nov 1997 People article, Hornberger, who wrote under the pen name Richard Hooker, had conservative, Republican political views that differed greatly from the liberal-leaning film and subsequent television series based on the book.
       As noted in a 12 Jul 1968 DV article, Twentieth Century-Fox purchased the film rights from Hornberger several months before the book’s publication and assigned the film to producer Ingo Preminger, as his first feature film producing effort. Although a 16 Jul 1968 HR article noted that Fox signed Ring Lardner, Jr. to write the screenplay, in a documentary included as added content on the 2001 DVD release of the film, Preminger claimed that Lardner had been asked to read the galleys for the book and then presented the idea to him.
       By early January 1969, Fox hired Robert Altman as director. After Fox cast rising stars Elliott Gould and Donald Sutherland in Mar 1969, Altman choose the remaining cast from actors with whom he had worked previously, including Michael Murphy and Tom Skerritt, and from various theater groups, among them, the American Conservatory Theatre and the comedy groups Second City in Chicago and The Committee in San Francisco. The production began on 14 Apr 1969 at the Twentieth Century-Fox Ranch in Malibu, CA, with the Japanese golfing scene shot at a nearby golf course, and the Kokura, Japan street scenes shot on Fox’s back lot.
       In the director’s commentary included as added content to the DVD, Altman stated that he preferred the ranch’s isolated location, which encouraged Fox to concentrate their attentions on their high-budget war films in production at the time, Tora! Tora! Tora! and Patton (see below). Altman thought that by keeping quiet and under budget he would be able to exercise more unrestricted creative freedom to develop the politically charged film. Unlike many war films about World War I and World War II, M*A*S*H did not make specific references to battles or dates in the Korean War, so that the film could be an allegory for America’s then current involvement in the Vietnam War.
       According to an 8 Mar 1970 LAT article, Altman used a zoom lens and a fog filter to obtain the camp’s “dirty” look, an aesthetic which at first displeased the studio. In the 18 Feb 1970 LAT review, Altman noted that the film was shot mostly with a long lens to allow the actors to play one to another, rather than directly to the camera, thus enhancing dialogue authenticity. The director also allowed everyone in the cast to view the film dailies, a practice not regularly allowed by the studio.
       The ensemble cast largely improvised dialogue from Lardner’s basic script and scene structure. For example, actress Sally Kellerman noted, in a 22 May 1970 Entertainment World article, that the original role written for her character “Hot Lips” contained only a few lines from which she created a main character. Because Fox refused to hire many non-speaking extras, Altman, who wanted a bustling camp atmosphere, was forced to create at least one line for each person who appeared onscreen.
       Altman’s alterations to the original script and his creation of substantial roles for lesser known actors became points of contention during and after the production. In a 29 Jul 1997 NYT letter to the editor, Altman denied Lardner’s earlier claims that the director had rewritten the script and thus ruined the film, and explained that the film was an improvisation stemming from Lardner’s structure. In the 2001 DVD documentary, Lardner addressed comments he had made throughout the years regarding Altman altering his script, noting that, upon Altman’s request, he made rewrites to the script, but the director largely ignored these changes. Also on the DVD documentary, Gould stated that he had made a mistake when, during shooting, he asked the studio to fire Altman. According to an 18 Jan 2002 LAT article, unknown to Altman, Gould and Sutherland had asked Fox to fire the director during production because of his insistence on treating bit players with the same consideration as the stars.
       As noted in a 15 Jul 1979 NYT article, Altman’s trademark layering of various sound components was central to M*A*S*H’s chaotic, front-line atmosphere. According to the DVD documentary, Altman conceived of and recorded the frequent loudspeaker announcements during editing to use as transitional devices for the film. The director used overlapping dialogue and punctuated the film with the announcements and an English-language, Japanese radio show broadcast over a loudspeaker. The announcements listed mundane base restrictions and descriptions of the evening film screenings, including military films glorifying war, thus serving to highlight the film’s theme of the hypocrisy of saving lives as the war continued to create more victims. The radio station often played songs that ironically underscored the film’s plot. For example a Japanese version of the song “My Blue Heaven” is heard during a love scene and the uptempo “Sayonara,” which included the lyrics “I knew sometime we’d have to say sayonara” [the Japanese word for goodbye], is heard while “Frank Burns” is being driven away in a straight jacket.
       Altman’s thirteen-year-old son Michael wrote the lyrics for the film’s theme song, “Suicide Is Painless.” Although the singers for the opening credits version of the song have not been determined, the ballad version heard during “Painless Pole”’s mock suicide ceremony is performed by actor Ken Prymus as “Private Seidman.” Technical advisor Dr. David Sachs helped to create the bloody and authentic front line operations for which the film was both criticized and lauded. Sachs also had a minor role as a surgeon in the film. According to a 1 May 1969 DV article, a helicopter crash during production at the ranch resulted in injuries to pilot Van L. Honeycutt and stuntmen John Ashby and Eddie Smith, who were portraying injured soldiers strapped to the side of the helicopter. According to the director’s commentary, Altman then used this wreckage in subsequent scenes, including a sunbathing sequence near the landing area.
       Several National Football League players were featured in the film, including Buck Buchanan, Timothy Brown and Oakland Raiders and Kansas City Chiefs star Fred Williamson, who had previously acted on television but made his motion picture debut in M*A*S*H . Williamson, as “Oliver ‘Spearkchucker’ Jones,” leads the 4077th football team to victory. According to a 12 Jun 1970 HR news item, ABC Sports director Andy Sidaris sued Fox for failing to credit him for directing the football sequences in the film; however, the outcome of this dispute and the extent of Sidaris’ work on the film remains undetermined.
       The popular, irreverent black comedy and anti-war film M*A*S*H became the second top grossing film in 1970, earning $22,000,000; however, according to a 24 May 1970 NYT article, several feminist groups criticized it for portraying women as merely sexual objects to be humiliated or patronized. Altman noted in the DVD director’s commentary that he portrayed the misogynistic attitudes because they were the real conditions for females working the military at the time.
       According to a 17 Mar 1970 HR news item, the United States Army and Air Force banned the film from being screened on service installations because it “reflected unfavorably” on the military. On 1 Apr 1970, HR reported that the Defense Department reversed its decision. Modern sources have speculated that the reversal was caused by the fact that many soldiers watched the film off base.
       M*A*S*H won an Oscar for Best Screenplay (Lardner) and received the following Academy Award nominations: Best Supporting Actress (Kellerman), Best Directing, Best Film Editing and Best Picture. The film also gained international fame when it won the 1970 International Grand Prix of the Cannes Film Festival.
       The film was adapted into the television series M*A*S*H (CBS, Sep 1972--Sep 1983), an extremely popular comedy starring Alan Alda as "Hawkeye" and Loretta Switt as "Hot Lips." Gary Berghoff as "Radar" was the only actor from the film to continue with the series. Hawkeye's roommate and co-conspirator "Trapper John," a part originally played by Wayne Rogers on the series, was changed to "B. J. Hunnicut," played by Mike Farrell, after Rogers left the program in 1975. Although still set during the Korean War, the series had an anti-war sentiment initially directed at the Vietnam War, from which American troops were not withdrawn until 1973.
       In Sep 1979, CBS aired the television series Trapper John, M.D. , a portrait of the character from the television series working as a chief surgeon at a San Francisco hospital twenty-eight years after his return from Korea. At the close of the television series M*A*S*H in 1983, several cast members, including Harry Morgan as Dr. Sherman Potter , Jamie Farr as "Max Klinger" and William Christopher as “Father Francis Mulcahy,” starred in AfterMASH (CBS, Sep 1983-Dec 1984), a dramatic series about civilian life in a veteran's hospital after the Korean War. Gould and Sutherland appeared in the 1971 Little Murders , in which Gould starred, and were cast as a comedic team in the 1974 film S*P*Y*S .
       In 2007, M*A*S*H was ranked 54th on AFI's 100 Years…100 Movies--10th Anniversary Edition list of the greatest American films, moving up from the 56th position it held on AFI's 1997 list. 

Bibliographic Sources:   Date   Page
Box Office   2 Feb 1970.   
Daily Variety   7 Jan 1969.   
Daily Variety   20 Jan 1969.   
Daily Variety   12 Mar 1969.   
Daily Variety   1 May 1969.   
Daily Variety   9 May 1969.   
Daily Variety   12 Jul 1968.   
Daily Variety   19 Jan 1970.   
Daily Variety   12 Jun 1970.   
Entertainment World   22 May 1970.   
The Exhibitor   4 Feb 1970.   
Film Daily   21 Jan 1970   p. 7.
Films and Filming   Aug 1970.   
Hollywood Reporter   16 Jul 1968.   
Hollywood Reporter   21 Mar 1969.   
Hollywood Reporter   31 Mar 1969.   
Hollywood Reporter   11 Apr 1969   p. 11.
Hollywood Reporter   14 Apr 1969.   
Hollywood Reporter   13 Jun 1969   p. 32.
Hollywood Reporter   16 Jul 1969.   
Hollywood Reporter   20 Jan 1970   pp. 3-4.
Hollywood Reporter   17 Mar 1970.   
Hollywood Reporter   1 Apr 1970.   
Life   10 Apr 1970.   
Los Angeles Times   18 Feb 1970.   
Los Angeles Times   8 Mar 1970.   
Los Angeles Times   17 May 1970.   
Los Angeles Times   18 Jan 2002.   
Motion Picture Herald   28 Jan 1970.   
New Republic   31 Jan 1970   pp. 30-31.
New York Times   26 Jan 1970   p. 26.
New York Times   1 Feb 1970   Section II, p. 1.
New York Times   22 Mar 1970   Section II, p. 19.
New York Times   24 May 1970.   
New York Times   7 Feb 1971.   
New York Times   29 Jun 1997.   
New Yorker   24 Jan 1970   p. 74.
Newsweek   2 Feb 1970   p. 83.
People   24 Nov 1997.   
Saturday Review   31 Jan 1970.   
Time   26 Jan 1970   p. 78.
Variety   21 Jan 1970   p. 18.
Variety   4 Feb 2002.   

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