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Northwest Passage (Book I--Rogers' Rangers)
Director: King Vidor (Dir)
Release Date:   23 Feb 1940
Premiere Information:   Boise, ID premiere: 20 Feb 1940
Production Date:   1 Jul 1939--13 Sep 1939; retakes and additional scenes mid-Nov--29 Dec 1939
Duration (in mins):   125
Duration (in reels):   14
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Cast:   Spencer Tracy (Major [Robert] Rogers)  
    Robert Young (Langdon Towne)  
    Walter Brennan ("Hunk" Marriner)  
    Ruth Hussey (Elizabeth Browne)  
    Nat Pendleton ("Cap" Huff)  
    Louis Hector (Reverend Browne)  
    Robert Barrat (Humphrey Towne)  
    Lumsden Hare (Lord Amherst)  
    Donald McBride (Sergeant McNott)  
    Isabel Jewell (Jennie Coit)  
    Douglas Walton (Lieutenant Avery)  
    Addison Richards (Lieutenant Crofton)  
    Hugh Sothern (Jesse Beacham)  
    Regis Toomey (Webster)  
    Montagu Love (Wiseman Clagett)  
    Lester Matthews (Sam Livermore)  
    Truman Bradley (Captain Ogden)  
    Andrew Pena (Konkapot)  
    Don Castle (Richard Towne)  
    Rand Brooks (Eben Towne)  
    Kent Rogers (Odiorne Towne)  
    Verna Felton (Mrs. Towne)  
    Richard Cramer (Sheriff Packer)  
    Ray Teal (Bradley McNeil)  
    Edward Gargan (Captain Butterfield)  
    John Merton (Lieutenant Dunbar)  
    Gibson Gowland (Macpherson)  
    Frank Hagney (Capt. Grant)  
    Gwendolen Logan (Mrs. Brown)  
    Addie McPhail (Jane Brown)  
    Helen MacKellar (Sarah Hadden)  
    Arthur Aylesworth (Flint, innkeeper)  
    Ted Oliver (Farrington)  
    Lawrence Porter (Billy, Indian boy)  
    Tony Guerrero (Captain Jacobs)  
    Ferdinand Munier (Stoodley)  
    George Eldredge (McMullen)  
    Robert St. Angelo (Solomon)  
    Denis Green (Capt. Williams)  
    Peter George Lynn (Turner)  
    Frederick Worlock (Sir William Johnson)  
    Hank Worden (Ranger)  
    Tom London (Ranger)  
    Eddie Parker (Ranger)  
    Captain C. E. Anderson (Ranger)  

Summary: After his expulsion from Harvard for making an insulting sketch of the president of the college, young Langdon Towne returns to his home in Portsmouth, New Hampshire in 1759 and announces to his sweetheart, Elizabeth Browne, that he is going to be a great artist. Forced to flee from the wealthy and powerful rogue Wiseman Clagett, whom he has also insulted, Langdon and his friend "Hunk" Marriner meet Major Robert Rogers. Rogers, who is about to undertake a dangerous mission to annihilate a tribe of warring Indians, wants Langdon to join his rangers as mapmaker, but is only able to sign up him and Hunk by getting them drunk on his favorite drink, hot-buttered rum. Stealthily launching their boats on the smooth surface of Lake Champlain, the rangers begin their punitive mission to the Indian village at St. Francis along the St. Lawrence River, moving carefully through the rough terrain and trying to avoid the hostile Indians who have aligned themselves with the French in their war against the British. When they discover French ships at the mouth of the river, the rangers are forced to portage their boats by foot and then trudge through swamps, bogs and rapids until they finally reach their destination. At St. Francis, the rangers swoop down upon the Indians, who have been massacring the white settlers, and in the bloody battle, Langdon is seriously wounded. The Indians defeated, the rangers begin the long and grueling trip to Fort Wentworth with the wounded Lagndon hobbling behind, aided by an Indian boy and an embittered white woman, Jennie Coit, who had been adopted by the Indians and hates the English. For days they march with only handfuls of dried corn to keep them alive, until the starving men vote to break up into hunting parties and meet at Eagle Mountain. With little success in their attempts to fish and capture game, when the men reconvene, their ranks have dwindled from one hundred and fifty to fifty. Despite their discouragement, the men bravely continue on, encouraged by Rogers, who promises them that there will be ample food at Fort Wentworth. As they approach the fort, Rogers runs ahead and discovers that the soldiers have gone, leaving nothing behind. Though at the point of desperation himself, Rogers tries to rally his men by telling them how much better off they are than some biblical figures who fasted for even longer than they. As the men start to rally, the British arrive, carrying ample food and supplies. Their mission completed and their stomachs filled, Rogers and his rangers march on in search of the Northwest Passage to the Pacific Ocean, while Langdon remains behind with Elizabeth, who plans to go with him to London while he trains to be a great artist. As Rogers marches away, Langdon tells Elizabeth that the world will remember Rogers through his paintings. 

Production Company: Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Corp. (Loew's Inc.)
Production Text: A King Vidor Production
Distribution Company: Loew's Inc.  
Director: King Vidor (Dir)
  Jack Conway (Dir of addl scenes)
  Norman Foster (2nd unit dir)
  Robert Golden (Asst dir)
  Bert Sperling (Asst dir)
  Harold Weinberger (Dir)
  Bill Lewis (2nd asst dir)
Producer: Hunt Stromberg (Prod)
Writer: Laurence Stallings (Scr)
  Talbot Jennings (Scr)
  Robert E. Sherwood (Contr wrt)
  Frances Marion (Contr wrt)
  Jules Furthman (Contr wrt)
  Conrad Richter (Contr wrt)
  Noel Langley (Contr wrt)
  Bruno Frank (Contr wrt)
  Jack Singer (Contr wrt)
  Sidney Howard (Contr wrt)
  Richard Schayer (Contr wrt)
  Jane Murfin (Contr wrt)
  King Vidor (Contr wrt)
  Elizabeth Hill (Contr wrt)
Photography: Sidney Wagner (Dir of photog)
  William V. Skall (Dir of photog)
  Raoul Bassette (Asst cam)
  Leonard Smith (Photog 1938 loc scenes)
  Ray Rennahan (Photog 1938 loc scenes)
Art Direction: Cedric Gibbons (Art dir)
  Malcolm Brown (Art dir assoc)
Film Editor: Conrad A. Nervig (Film ed)
Set Decoration: Edwin B. Willis (Set dec)
Music: Herbert Stothart (Mus score)
  Daniele Amfitheatrof (Addl mus)
  William Axt Dr. (Addl mus)
  Paul Marquardt (Orch)
  Charles Maxwell (Orch)
  Leonid Raab (Orch)
  Murray Cutter (Orch)
Sound: Douglas Shearer (Rec dir)
Make Up: Jack Dawn (Makeup created by)
  Lyle Dawn Jr. (Head of makeup staff)
  Jack Young (Makeup staff)
  Charles Gorman (Makeup staff)
  Bert Lindley (Makeup staff)
  Don Roberson (Makeup staff)
  Lois Stanfield (Makeup staff)
  Rae Foreman (Makeup staff)
  Lelia Chambers (Makeup staff)
Production Misc: Jay Marchand (Unit mgr)
  Joe Cooke (Unit mgr)
  Frank Messenger (Unit mgr)
  Brittingham's (Caterers)
Color Personnel: Natalie Kalmus (Technicolor col dir)
  Henri Jaffa (Assoc)
Country: United States

Source Text: Based on the novel Northwest Passage: Book One, Rogers' Rangers by Kenneth Roberts (New York, 1937).
Authors: Kenneth Roberts

Copyright Claimant Copyright Date Copyright Number Passed By NBR:
Loew's Inc. 27/2/1940 dd/mm/yyyy LP9597 Yes

PCA NO: 5725
Physical Properties: col: Technicolor
  Sd: Western Electric Sound System

Genre: Adventure
Subjects (Major): Artists
  English in foreign countries
  Indians of North America
  Major Robert Rogers
  United States--History--French and Indian War, 1755-1763
Subjects (Minor): Artists
  Portsmouth (NH)
  St. Lawrence River

Note: The working title of the film was Northwest Passage , and most reviews and modern sources refer to the film under that title. Part of Kenneth Roberts' novel was serialized in The Saturday Evening Post , under the title Rogers' Rangers (26 Dec 1936--6 Feb 1937). The following information has been obtained from news items, production charts and the film's pressbook, unless otherwise noted: Northwest Passage was first considered for purchase in Nov 1936, when William Fadiman, M-G-M's New York story editor, read galley pages of its SEP serialization. M-G-M purchased the rights in Sep 1937 and planned the film as its first three-strip Technicolor feature. In Mar 1938, W. S. Van Dyke, who initially was to direct the picture, had a two-week hiatus from his work on Marie Antoinette (see AFI Catalog of Feature Films, 1931-40 ; F3.2750), and went to British Columbia to scout locations. In late Mar 1938, a HR news item announced that John Arnold, head of the M-G-M camera department, had assigned cameraman Leonard Smith to take a month's training at the Technicolor plant to prepare for filming. That same week, color tests were made of Spencer Tracy, who was, according to the pressbook, the studio's "immediate choice for Major Robert Rogers." In Apr 1938, Wallace Beery was announced for the role of "Sergeant McNatt" (portrayed by Donald McBride in the film), and later Robert Taylor was announced for the role of "Langdon Towne" (portrayed by Robert Young). At that time, a news item in HR announced that the production was budgeted at $1,500,000. M-G-M attempted to borrow RKO star Anne Shirley for the film in late Jun 1938, probably for the role of "Elizabeth Browne" (portrayed by Ruth Hussey), but possibly for the role of "Ann" (portrayed by Laraine Day, but cut from the completed film).
       In Jun 1938, delays in preparations led to the decision of M-G-M executives to postpone principal photography on Northwest Passage . At that time, the first few days of black-and-white footage shot on the musical Sweethearts (see AFI Catalog of Feature Films, 1931-40 ; F3.2190) was scrapped, and that film became the first M-G-M Technicolor production. In Aug, Robert Z. Leonard was assigned to finish direction of the final number of Sweethearts so that Van Dyke, who had been directing the musical, could devote more time to preparations for Northwest Passage . Additional background locations were scouted by Van Dyke and others during 1938 throughout the Western United States. During Jul and Aug, M-G-M unit manager Frank Messenger headed a crew of sixty-eight persons who shot 60,000 feet of backgrounds for the picture in the vicinity of McCall, Idaho. In Aug, Van Dyke was supposed to go to Idaho himself, but the trip was canceled after the decision was made to postpone the project until Spring 1939. Inclement weather, which M-G-M felt could cause an increase of $500,000 to the budget of the picture was cited as the reason for the delay. Beery and Taylor were cast in the Western Stand Up and Fight in the interim (see below).
       In late Feb 1939, Van Dyke was taken off the picture because of a scheduling conflict with It's a Wonderful World (see AFI Catalog of Feature Films, 1931-40 ; F3.2190) were considered as replacements. Vidor was the final choice, although Conway directed some additional scenes for the picture in Nov 1939. In Mar 1939, exteriors were shot at Payette Lake, Idaho and, while additional pre-production location work was done at McCall and Payette throughout Apr, May and Jun 1939, principal photography did not commence until 6 Jul. At that time, a cast and crew of approximately two thousand people were based in McCall, which had its own telecommunications system and diesel power plant, and catering was provided by Brittingham's of Hollywood. Smaller groups would travel from McCall to Payette Lake, and Glacier National Park for various sequences. By the time principal photography began, McBride had replaced Beery, and Young had replaced Taylor. Modern sources indicate that by the time filming began, M-G-M had decided not to make the picture an "all-star" production to keep escalating costs down.
       In addition to credited scenarists Laurence Stallings and Talbot Jennings, the following writers worked on the project at various stages: Conrad Richter, Robert E. Sherwood, Frances Marion, Jules Furthman, Noel Langley, Bruno Frank, Jack Singer, Sidney Howard, Richard Schayer, Jane Murfin, Elizabeth Hill and director King Vidor. According to modern sources, Conrad Richter was the first writer assigned to the project, followed by M-G-M contract writers Marion, Furthman, Langley, Frank and Singer. Sherwood was brought onto the production in Feb 1938, and Howard was asked to work on revisions of Sherwood's work in Apr 1938. Schayer was assigned additional revisions in Nov 1939. Stallings came onto the project in Mar 1939, and Jennings in Jun. According to modern sources, Vidor and his then wife Elizabeth Hill also contributed significantly to the final screenplay.
       At the start of principal photography, cameramen Sidney Wagner and William V. Skall replaced Leonard Smith and Technicolor photographer Ray Rennahan. According to a HR news item, Norman Foster was brought in to act as "associate director," a position which the item states was not an assistantship or unit director position, but which other sources call the second unit director. Over three hundred Indians from the Nez Perce reservation and, according to a HR news item, "the entire Blackfoot tribe" participated in filming at Glacier National Park. The McCall company started to disband in early Aug, and by 16 Aug most of the principals had returned to Southern California. Filming at the M-G-M studio began a few days later, although a second unit remained in McCall and an additional location trip to Glacier National Park was considered for Sep. According to modern sources, the "human chain" sequence of the film was started at Payette Lake, but had to be completed at the M-G-M backlot exterior "tank" due to the treacherous conditions at the Lake. The studio tank was made to match closely the appearance of Payette Lake so that shots of the real location could be edited into the studio footage. Water in the tank was artificially churned by huge motors to create a "current." The last production chart for the film appears on 9 Sep 1939, but news items in mid-Nov 1939 indicate that retakes, including a new ending for the story, were shot at that time by director Jack Conway. According to the pressbook, filming was completed on 29 Dec after seventy days of shooting. Modern sources have noted that between late Sep and early Nov 1939, producer Hunt Stromberg and M-G-M executives pondered the question of whether to film the entire Roberts novel as one book or to divide it into two parts, as originally planned. It was eventually decided to complete the film in late Dec and in late Jan 1940, M-G-M studio head Louis B. Mayer announced that the film would be released as a single film, with the possibility of a sequel later. No sequel was filmed, and the released picture ends at approximately the mid-point of Roberts' novel.
       According to information in the Howard Strickling Collection at the AMPAS Library, the final cost of the picture was $2,677,672. Modern sources have speculated that several hundred thousand dollars of the final cost was the result of the ultimately useless location trips in 1938, various delays and large fees for the book and screenplay. Sidney Wagner and William V. Skall were nominated for an Academy Award for Best Cinematography (Color), but lost to Georges Perinal for The Thief of Bagdad . The picture was one of the top twenty films at the box office in 1940, but, according to modern sources, lost money because of the high cost of production. M-G-M made a short film about the making of Northwest Passage , entitled Northward, Ho! . A television series, inspired by the Roberts novel, was broadcast on the NBC television network from Sep 1958 to Jul 1959. The series starred Keith Larsen as "Rogers," Buddy Ebsen as "'Hunk' Mariner" and Don Burnett as "Langdon Towne." Modern sources add the following additional credits: Tech consultant George Greene; 2nd unit photog Jack Smith; Addl photog Charles Boyle; Cam op and asst Fred Mayer, William T. Cline, A. J. "Duke" Callahan, Roger Mace, Kyme Meade, Paul Uhl, Joe Noecker, Nady McIntyre, Richard Mueller and James Stone. 

Bibliographic Sources:   Date   Page
American Cinematographer   Mar 40   P. 100, 110
Daily Variety   7 Feb 40   p. 3.
Film Daily   12 Feb 40   p. 5.
Hollywood Reporter   17 Mar 38   p. 2.
Hollywood Reporter   28 Mar 38   p. 7.
Hollywood Reporter   2 Apr 38   p. 1.
Hollywood Reporter   12 Apr 38   p. 1.
Hollywood Reporter   20 Jun 38   p. 12.
Hollywood Reporter   22 Jun 38   p. 2.
Hollywood Reporter   2 Jul 38   p. 1.
Hollywood Reporter   22 Jul 38   p. 2.
Hollywood Reporter   18 Aug 38   p. 2.
Hollywood Reporter   19 Aug 38   p. 3.
Hollywood Reporter   7 Nov 38   p. 1.
Hollywood Reporter   20 Feb 39   p. 1.
Hollywood Reporter   22 Mar 39   p. 13, 18
Hollywood Reporter   20 Apr 39   p. 4.
Hollywood Reporter   8 May 39   p. 21.
Hollywood Reporter   16 May 39   p. 2, 4
Hollywood Reporter   17 May 39   p. 8.
Hollywood Reporter   6 Jun 39   p. 8.
Hollywood Reporter   10 Jun 39   p. 4.
Hollywood Reporter   28 Jun 39   p. 1.
Hollywood Reporter   29 Jun 39   p. 15, 16
Hollywood Reporter   1 Jul 39   p. 1.
Hollywood Reporter   5 Jul 39   p. 1.
Hollywood Reporter   8 Jul 39   p. 1.
Hollywood Reporter   17 Jul 39   p. 6.
Hollywood Reporter   20 Jul 39   p. 2.
Hollywood Reporter   3 Aug 39   p. 7.
Hollywood Reporter   8 Aug 39   p. 5.
Hollywood Reporter   9 Aug 39   p. 3.
Hollywood Reporter   15 Aug 39   p. 7.
Hollywood Reporter   19 Aug 39   p. 3.
Hollywood Reporter   21 Aug 39   p. 3.
Hollywood Reporter   9 Sep 39   p. 6.
Hollywood Reporter   16 Nov 39   p. 6.
Hollywood Reporter   16 Jan 40   p. 2.
Motion Picture Daily   13 Feb 40   pp. 1-5.
Motion Picture Herald   14 Oct 40   p. 37.
Motion Picture Herald   17 Feb 40   p.
New York Times   8 Mar 40   p. 25.
Variety   14 Feb 40   p. 18.

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